PALESTINE FACTS

Personalities - Chronological Listing

1920-1950

 
ABBOUSHI, FAHMI

Mayor of Jenin from 1935-37; dismissed from the post by the British in 1937, as a result the Abboushi was family lived in exile in Beirut Lebanon till 1940. Fahmi Abboushi was one of founders of the Arab Independence Party. He was the chairman of the Arab Nationalist Bank, Jenin's branch, in the 1940s. He also served on numerous national committees during and after the British Mandate on Palestine.

At the turn of the century, the Abboushis and the Abdul Hadis were among the few prominent families in the Jenin area. The two families had what we may call a healthy competitive relationship especially in the field of politics. For example, Hafiz Bash Abdul Hadi and Haj Mustafa Abbushi were prominent figures in Jenin; they were also close friends. The two families always competed for the mayoral office. In the thirties Tahseen Abdul Hadi and Fahmi Abboushi competed for the mayoral office of Jenin. Fahmi Abboushi won the elections but in 1937 the British dismissed him from the post.

It is also worth mentioning that Fahmi Abboushi had a close friendship with Auwni AbdulHadi, both work together in the founding of the Arab Independence Party in the early 1930s. Fahmi Abboushi was also well known for his oratory skills.

 
ABDUL BAQI, AHMAD HILMI (1878-1963)
Born in 1878 in Sidon; served as General in the Ottoman army; Director-General of the Ottoman Agricultural Bank in Syria and Iraq in 1908; Director-General of the Palestinian waqf under Hajj Amin al-Husseini in 1925; founder of the Arab National Bank in 1930 and its chairman in the early 1940s; early member of the Istiqlal party; named as treasurer to the first Arab Higher Committee formed in 1936; established the Arab National Fund in August 1943 which supported the Istiqlal party; military governor in Jerusalem; named first Prime Minister of the All-Palestine Government's cabinet established in September 1948 in Gaza; appointed District Military Governor under Hashemite rule in the West Bank; appointed Palestinian representative to the Arab League; died in 1963 in Cairo.  

 

ABDUL HADI, AWNI (1889-1970)
Born in 1889 in Nablus; landowner and lawyer; pan-Arabist; educated in Beirut, Istanbul, and at the Sorbonne University, Paris; founding member of the al-Fatat nationalist society in 1911 which was devoted to Arab independence and unity; among the organizers of the first Arab Nationalist Congress in Paris, 1913; private secretary of King Faisal I at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919; then adviser to Amir Abdullah in Transjordan; returning to Palestine in 1924 he became one of the chief spokespersons of the Palestinian-Arab nationalist movement; elected representative to the 5th (August 1922, Nablus) and 6th (June 1923, Jaffa) Congress of the Arab Executive Committee for Jenin and to the 7th (June 1928) for Beisan; secretary of the Executive Committee's Congress in 1928; member of the Palestinian Delegation to the United Kingdom in 1930; lawyer for the Supreme Muslim Council; founder, general secretary and first elected president of the Palestinian Istiqlal (Independence) Party, the first regularly constituted Palestinian political party (August 2, 1932); member and Secretary General of the Arab Higher Committee (formed in April 1936); partially responsible for the revolt of 1936-39; banned from re-entry to the country when the British decided to deport the Committee members in 1937 (until 1941); member of the Palestinian delegation to the London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939; member and appointed Minister for Social Affairs of the All-Palestine government, established in 1948, served as Jordan's Minister (later ambassador) to Cairo, 1951-55; 1955-58 Jordanian senator; from 1958 chairman of the Arab League's Judicial Affairs Committee in Cairo; died on March 15, 1970 in Cairo.  

 

ABDUL HADI, RUHI (1885-1954)
Born in Jenin in 1885; served in the Ottoman diplomatic and consular corps; vice president of the Ottoman parliament in 1908; held senior positions in the Palestinian administration under the British Mandate (Chief Secretary of Palestine); elected secretary of the first Delegation to London, 1921; became Minister in Jordan (Foreign Minister, 1949; Justice Minister, 1949 and 1952-53); died on July 16, 1954 in Nablus.  

 

ABDUL HADI, TARAB (1910-1976)
Palestinian feminist; gave a speech in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre during the Arab Womens March to holy sites on April 15, 1933, warning of the replacement of the Arab population of Palestine with Jewish immigrants, one of many activists in the 1930s' campaign aiming at the removal of the veil.  

 

AL-ALAMI, MUSA (1897-1984)
Born in Jerusalem in 1897; son of Faidi al-Alami; landowner; graduated in law from Cambridge University; during the 1930s Secretary to the High Commissioner and Junior Crown Counsel in the Mandatory administration; in 1936 Secretary General of the Legal Department in Jerusalem; participated in the 1936-39 revolt alongside the Mufti; held a series of talks with the Jewish Agency leader David Ben Gurion; member of the Palestinian delegation to the London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939; representative of the Palestinian political Parties at the Preparatory Conference for the Establishment of the Arab League, held in Alexandria in September/October 1944, preceding the establishment of the League of Arab States in 1945; founded Palestinian-Arab propaganda offices in Jerusalem, Beirut, London and Washington and created a special fund to help Palestinian farmers to retain their land in 1945; after the 1948 war, founded the Arab Development Society in Jericho; died on June 8, 1984 in Jerusalem.  

 

ANTONIUS, GEORGE (1891-1941)
Palestinian writer and politician; Greek-Orthodox Christian of Lebanese origin; born in 1891 in Cairo; graduate from Cambridge University in 1913; Deputy Press Censor in Alexandria during World War I; came to Palestine in 1921 and started civil service career in the Educa tion Department (1921) and the Secretariat (1927) of the British Mandate Executive; obtained Palestinian Citizenship in 1925; advisor to the Mufti; resigned from British service in 1930 in protest over British discrimination policy against Palestinians; began his work as Middle Eastern associate of C.R. Crane's Institute of Current World Affairs, New York; appeared before the Peel commission 1936-37); author of The Arab Awakening (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1938) a classic work on Arab nationalism; member of the Palestinian delegation at the London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939, functioning as secretary to the Palestinian delegation and Secretary General to the united Arab delegation; died in Jerusalem on December 27, 1941.  

 

AL-AREF, AREF (1891-1973)
Born in Jerusalem in 1891; studied in Turkey and conscripted into the Turkish army in World War I; captured and spent three years in a camp in Siberia, from where he escaped after the Russian Revolution and went back to Palestine; editor of the first Arab nationalist newspaper Suriyya al-Janubbiyya, published in Jerusalem in 1919; advocated a policy of militant but non-violent opposition to Zionism; arrested during riots in 1920, escaped with fellow-accused Haj Amin al-Husseini to Syria; sentenced to 10 years in prison in absencia on charges of fomenting the riots; transferred back to Pa-lestine in 1929; became civil servant under the British Mandate (1933-48); District Administrative Officer in Beer Sheba in 1936; then ministerial officer in Jordan; appointed mayor of Jerusalem (1950-55); author of Bedouin Love, Law and Legend, History of Beersheba and Its Tribes, History of Gaza, and History of Jerusalem; died on July 30, 1973 in Ramallah.  

 

DAJANI, HASSAN SIDQI (-1937)
Journalist, lawyer and politician from Jerusalem; set up Muntada al-Adabi in 1919 and was its leader; among those accepting the Balfour Declaration as unchangeable fact but stipulated that Jewish immigration should be regulated; one of the founders of the Liberal Party (Hizb al-Ahrar) in 1930; member of the pro-mu'arada faction; secretary of the National Defense Party; legal counsel and head of the Arab Car Owner's & Driver's Association; declared a general strike of Arab transport facilities to protest against the British rule in 1936 and leading organizer of the strike; called for general strike in all sections of Palestine.  

 

DARWAZA, IZZAT MUHAMMAD (1887-1984)
Born in Nablus, 1887, to a middle class family; served in the local Ottoman administration as clerk in the Department of Telegraphic and Postal Services in Nablus; director of al-Najah School in Nablus; among those who set up Al-Jam'iyya al-Filastiniyya (The Palestinian Society) in Damascus in 1919, whose aim was to promote the Palestinian cause and to enlist the support of the Arabs in Syria and Palestine; delegate for the Jamma'in district and secretary at the 1st Palestinian Arab Congress (Jerusalem, 1919), in favour of Palestinian unity with Syria; wrote anti-Zionist articles in the local press pointing out the catastrophic impact of Jewish immigration on the country and the threat that Zionism posed to Syria and the Arab world; rejected the mandate of any foreign power over Palestine; later secretary of Nadi al-Arabi; elected representative for Nablus to the 4th (May 1921, Jerusalem) and 7th (June 1928) Palestinian National Congress; member of the Arab Executive Committee; secretary of the Nablus MCA in the early 1930s; appointed General Administrator of the Waqf in the 1930s by the Supreme Muslim Council; member of the Istiqlal party.  

 

DAOU'DI, AZIZ (1890-)
Born in Jeruslem in 1890; appointed as Judge in Ramle Court; later Judge in the District Court of Nablus; one of the famous cases he dealt with was the land property of the late Sultan Abdel Hamid in Palestine; considered one of the experts on land issues; his publications are considered major references on early land issues in Palestine.  

 

FARRAJ, YA'QOUB (1875-)
Christian; born in 1875 in Jerusalem; after World War I radical pan-Arab, pro-British and anti-Zionist; Greek Orthodox representative to the Administrative Committee of the MCA in 1918; Jerusalem delegate to the 1st Palestinian-Arab Congress, held in Jerusalem, 1919, prefered Palestinian independence; elected to the 7th Palestinian National Congress (June 1928) as Christian representative and vice-president; vice-president of the Arab Executive Committee in 1934; elected representative to the Arab Higher Committee for the Jerusalem Christians in 1936; member of the delegation to the London Conference (February 1939).  

 

AL-FARUQI, SHEIKH SULAIMAN AL-TAJI (1882-1958)
President of the Patriotic Ottoman Party (al-Hizb al-Watani al-Uthmani) which was set up in 1910 in Jaffa; leader of the MCA in Ramleh; promoter of the Third Palestinian Congress in Haifa, 1920; member of the mu'arada faction; member of the Palestine Arab National Party (founded in November 1923) and its first elected president; elected representative to the 3rd (December 1920 in Haifa), 5th (August 1922, Nablus), 6th (June 1923, Jaffa) and 7th (June 1928) Congress of the Arab Executive Committee for Ramleh; supporter of the National Defence Party in the mid-1930s; founder and editor of Al-Jami'ah Al-Islamiyya newspaper in the mid-1930s in Jaffa.  

 

AL-GHUSSEIN, YA'COB (1900-1947)
Born in 1899 in Ramleh; landowner; lawyer (graduated in Cambridge/U.K.); pro-Husseini; founder (1932) and president of the Arab Youth Congress Party; elected president of the first National Congress of Arab Youth, held in Jaffa, January 1932; member and representative of his party in the Arab Higher Committee since 1936; member of the Supreme Muslim Council in 1937; exiled on October 1, 1937 to the Seychelles Islands for being a member of the Arab Higher Committee which was dissolved by the British; member of the Palestinian delegation to the London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939; reconstituted his faction in 1945; died in Jerusalem on December 27, 1947.  

 

AL-HUSSEINI, ABD AL-QADER (1907-1948)
Born in 1907 in Jerusalem; Son of Musa Qassem (Pasha) al-Husseini; graduate in chemistry of the American University of Cairo; organized a Congress of Educated Muslims in the early 1930s to fight discrimination against Palestinian Arabs in government services; founder (1931) and leader of the Al-Jihad Al-Muqaddas (Holy War) organization; leader of the Palestinian resistance during the Great Revolt of 1936-39; guerilla commander for the Jerusalem district; exiled in 1938, returned secretly to Jerusalem in 1948 after and was commander of the volunteer force of al-Jihad al-Muqaddas (Holy War Army); resistance organizer and Palestinian leader during the 1948 war; killed in a counter attack at Qastel, west of Jerusalem, on April 8, 1948.  

 

AL-HUSSEINI, HAJ AMIN (1895-1974)
Born in Jerusalem in 1895; studied religious law at al-Azhar University, Cairo, and at the Istanbul School of Administration; went to Mecca on a Pilgrimage in 1913; joined the Ottoman Turkish army in World War I and returned to Jerusalem in 1917; member and president of Nadi al-Arabi; sentenced in abstencia to ten years imprisonment on charges of fomenting the riots of early 1920; was pardoned by the High Commissioner and returned in August 1920 to Jerusalem, calling for the incorporation of Palestine into Syria; appointed Grand Mufti of Jerusalem on May 8, 1921 (until 1948); head of the First Palestinian Delegation to London in 1921; appointed president of the first Supreme Muslim Council in March 1922 (until 1937). Remained at the top of the secret 'political black list of the Public Security Department regarded as extreme opponent of the government; led a long campaign (1928-29) rousing the Arabs of Palestine to stand against the threat to the Muslim holy places in Jerusalem; head of the Palestinian Delegation to London, 1930; elected president of the Arab Higher Committee on April 25, 1936; as such, chief organiser of the 1936 Great Revolt and the internal Arab conflicts in 1937; ordered to be deported October 1, 1937, but escaped to Lebanon, Iraq, Italy and Germany; ran the National Leadership in exile in the late 1930s; conducted after the war the Palestinian struggle against the Partition Plan from exile (Egypt); elected President in absencia of the Arab Higher Executive (Fourth Higher Committee of the Arab League); named a local leader of the Muslim Brotherhood after its establishment in Jerusalem in the mid-1940s by followers of Hassan al-Banna, who founded the Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928; president of the National Assembly (known as All-Palestine government), set up by the Arab Higher Committee Congress on October 1, 1948, in Gaza; died on July 5, 1974 in Beirut.  

 

AL-HUSSEINI, JAMAL (1892-1982)
Born in 1892; graduate from the Anglican School in Jerusalem; studied medicine at the American University of Beirut but was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I; served after the war in the British Military Government in the Health department, as local adviser to the Governor of Nablus and as assistant to the Governor of Ramleh; was member of both, the Nadi al-Arabi and the Mun-tada al-Adabi organization in 1918/19; later member of the pro-Husseini majle-siyoun faction; elected representative to the 6th Congress of the Arab Executive Committee (June 1923, Jaffa) for Jerusalem and to the 7th (June 1928) for Bethlehem; elected secretary of the Executive Committee at the congresses from 1920-1928; secretary of the Supreme Muslim Council from 1927-30; suspected by the Jews of organising the revolt of 1929; member of the Palestinian Delegation to London in 1930; organizer and chairman of the Mufti's Palestine Arab party, established in 1935; member of the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine 1936-37 and its representative to the UN 1947-48; member and Mufti's representative and president of the Palestinian delegation to the London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939; in 1940-41 active among Palestinian exiles in Iraq; caught by the British after escape from Iraq and exiled to Southern Rhodesia; returned to Palestine in 1946 and elected Vice President of the Arab Higher Executive (Fourth Higher Committee of the Arab League); reorganized his party and formed its paramilitary youth organization al-Futuwwa; named Foreign Minister to the All-Palestine Government, established in 1948; from the late 50's to 70's worked as consultant to Sudia Arabia; died on July 3, 1982.  

 

Al-HUSSEINI, MUSA QASSEM (BASHA) (1853-1934)
Born in 1853; graduate from the Istanbul School of Administration; held many administrative positions (among others district Governor of Yemen, 1908) in the Ottoman Empire from which he retired on the eve of World War I; appointed mayor of Jerusalem (March 1918), but removed by the British for opposing their pro-Zionist policies in April 1920; leading figure in the Jerusalem branch of the MCA in 1919; from then until his death he led the Palestinian national movement; leader and spokesperson of the opposition to the British Mandate; belonged to the pro-Husseini majlesiyoun faction; elected representative of Jerusalem to the 3rd (December 1920, Haifa), 5th (August 1922, Nablus), 6th (June 1923, Jaffa) and 7th (June 1928) Congress of the Arab Executive Committee; elected president of the Arab Executive Committee at the 3rd Congress in Haifa, 14 Dec. 1920 and held this position in all congresses until 1928 and generally until his death; head and member of the Palestinian Delegations to London in the 1920-30s; leader of the demonstration protesting Zionist mass immigration in Jaffa, 27 October 1933 where he was injured which hastened his death on March 27, 1934; father of Abd al-Qader al-Husseini.  

 

JARALLAH, SHEIKH HUSSAM AL-DIN (1884-1954)
Born in 1884 in Jerusalem; graduate of al-Azhar University, Cairo; leading member of the Supreme Muslim Council; in 1918 Muslim representative to the Administrative Committee of the MCA; allied with the Nashashibis; topped the list of candidates chosen by the ulama (and fully supported by the Nashashibi family) in 1921 for the title of Mufti but persuaded, mainly by the British, to resign; lifelong rival of Haj Amin al-Husseini; Chief Justice and Inspector of the Muslim religious courts in Palestine; in the mid-1930s Inspector of the Education Department in Jerusalem; from October 1937 he served as the sole Muslim member of the Council after its other members had been deported or exiled; appointed Mufti of Jerusalem and Chief Qadi on December 20, 1948 (replacing Haj Amin Husseini); died 6 March 1954 in Jerusalem.  

 

AL-KHALIDI, AHMAD SAMIH (1896-1951)
Born in 1896; He studied at al-Mutran (St. George) School in Jerusalem. Then joined the AUB for one year. But when WW1 broke out he was conscripted for an unknown period. He found his way to the Othoman College of Medicine in Beirut, where he studied pharmacy. After the war he went back to the AUB where he graduated with Bsc. in 1925; served in the British Mandate government's educational department; principal of the "Teacher's College" which he renamed as "The Arab College" in Jerusalem; appointed Deputy-Director of Education in 1941; translator and author of many books on education and psychology; played an important role in developing the Palestinian Arab educational curricula focussing on nationalization and Arabization and in changing teaching methods as well as teacher-student relations towards more independent thinking; After the 1936/1937 disturbances, Ahmed together with some of his friends, started a project called "The Farm of Dir 'Amr" to sponsor the Orphans who lost their parents during the turmoil in Palestine. He made it a point to make available for these orphans the best possible education on the same footing with the best at the time; died in 1951; father of Walid al-Khalidi who became, since the 1940s, an outstanding representative of a new generation of Palestinian intellectuals.  

 

KHALIDI, HUSSEIN FAKHRI (1895-1966)
Born in 1895 in Jerusalem; worked as medical doctor for the Department of Public Health in Aleppo during Amir Faisal's rule; elected mayor of Jerusalem 1934-37; founded on 23 June 1935 the Reform Party (Hizb-al-Islah) and joined the Arab Higher Committee as leader; exiled to the Seychelles Islands in 1937 but released in 1938; took part in the London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939; among those rejecting the Government's White Paper proposal; returned to Palestine in 1943 and joined the renewed Arab Higher Committee in 1945; became secretary of the Arab Higher Committee in 1946; was the only member of the Higher Committee to stay in Palestine during the fighting, 1947-48, but without influence; briefly joined the All-Palestine Government (1948); known for his moderate position and loyalty towards the Hashemites under Jordanian rule; custodian and supervisor of the Haram al-Sharif in 1951; in the 1950s Jordanian Cabinet Minister (of Foreign Affairs); appointed Prime Minister for a brief period in 1957; died on December 26, 1966.  

 

MAHMUD, ABD AL- RAHIM (1913-1948)
Poet from Anabta, near Tulkarem; joined the Palestinian police 1932/33; resigned and participated in the Arab revolt of 1936; killed in the Al-Shajara battle on June 13, 1948.  

 

MOGHANNAM, MATIEL
Feminist leader; author of The Arab Women and the Palestinian Problem (London: Herbert Joseph, 1937); spoke at the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock during the Arab Womens March to holy sites on April 15, 1933, warning of the future ramifications for Palestine as the Arab population was outnumbered by Jewish immigrants.  

 

AL-MUTHAFFAR, SHEIKH ABDUL QADER (1894-1949)
Born in Jerusalem; before World War I supporter of Ottoman patriotism; later more critical and exiled to Damascus for extremist agitation; among those who set up Al-Jam'iyya al-Filastiniyya (The Palestinian Society) in Damascus in 1919 the aim of which was to promote the Palestinian cause and to enlist the support of the Arabs in Syria and Palestine; member and president of the Nadi al-Arabi group in Damascus and later active in Jerusalem (its president in 1923); member of the Arab Executive and one of its leaders; demanded a policy of non-cooperation with the British government and called for civil disobedience; leading figure of the boycott initiated by the Arab Executive, the MCA and others, of the 1923 elections to the Legislative Council set up by the British; elected representative to the 5th (August 1922, Nablus) and 6th (June 1923, Jaffa) Congress of the Arab Executive Committee for Jerusalem and to the 7th (June 1928) for Safed; imprisoned by British for organizing and participating in the Jaffa demonstrations in 1933 against Jewish immigration to Palestine; later offered release for good behaviour, but refused (as he was the only one of the accused offered release) and stayed 6 months in jail; died in 1949 in Amman.  

 

NABULSI, HAJ NIMR (1860-1940)
Landowner and industrialist of Nablus; religious activist; in later stage of his life supporter of the Palestinian Defense Party; build the famous mosque in Nablus; a soup factory carries his name.  

 

NASHASHIBI, IS'AF (1882-1948)
Born in 1882 in Jerusalem; after World War I member and leading figure of the Muntada al-Adabi leadership; described as a "walking Arabic dictionary"; author of Modern Science and Us; affiliated with the pro-Husseini majlesiyoun faction; died on December 29, 1948 in Cairo.  

 

NASHASHIBI, RAGHEB (1881-1951)
Born in 1881; public figure under the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate and the Jordanian administration; graduated in engineering at Istanbul University and became Jerusalem's District Engineer; lifetime opposition leader against the Husseini family; in 1914, elected to the Ottoman parliament and Jerusalem representative in the Ottoman parliament during World War I; head of the Ottoman department of Public Works; member of the All-Syrian Congress in 1919; returned and replaced Musa Qassem (Pasha) al-Husseini as mayor of Jerusalem (1920-34); leading figure of the Palestine Arab National party, founded in 1923; member of the Palestinian Delegation to the U.K., March 1930; founder (2 Dec. 1934) and leader of the National Defense party; its representative in the Arab Higher Committee (1936); resigned from the Arab Higher Committee in preparation to accept partition. Politically inactive in the 1940s; in August 1949 appointed head of the new Jordanian ministry for refugees and rehabilitation; in Sept. 1949 appointed first Governor-General for Arab Palestine; in 1950 Jordanian Minister of Agriculture and later of Transport; appointed as custodian of the Holy places of Jerusalem with cabinet rank; died in January 1951.  

 

NASSAR, NAJIB (1865-1947)
Born in 1865 in Ein Einub, Lebanon; worked as pharmacist for a hospital in Tiberias; founder and editor of al-Karmil, the first Palestinian anti-Zionist weekly newspaper in Arabic which appeared in Haifa in 1909 warning against land sales to Jews and Zionist colonial activities in Palestine; behind the foundation of an association in Haifa with the aim of preventing the implementation of Zionism and persuading the government to prohibit land sales to Jews at the end of 1910; published in 1911 the first book in Arabic on Zionism, entitled Zionism: Its History, Objective and Importance in which he described Zionism as a racist movement that aims to replace the Palestinians in the Holy Land; favored the program of decentralization of Palestine but maintained his Ottoman loyalty all his life coupled with Palestinian patriotism; died on December 28, 1947.  

 

AL-QASSAM, SHEIKH IZZ AL-DIN (-1935)
Born in Ladeqiya, Syria; Muslim preacher, religious teacher and social reformer with residence in Haifa; Muslim Brotherhood member; preached Jihad (holy war) and revolution against both the British and the Zionists; organiser and leader of the first Palestinian guerilla group, acting against British security forces while preaching in Hebron; killed in action (1st Palestinian guerilla act) against British forces on November 19, 1935; his martyrdom triggered the Great Revolt of 1936-39, and his example was very much in the mind of Arafat and his colleagues three decades later; today, the armed wing of the Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas, is named after him.  

 

ROCH, ALFRED
Born in Jaffa; representative of the Christian (Greek Catholic) community of Jaffa; anti-Zionist; supporter of the Husseini faction; elected to the 7th Palestini-an National Congress (June 1928) as Christian representative; member of the Palestinian Delegation to London, 1930; elected vice-president of the Palestinian Arab Party in March 1935; elected re-presentative to the Arab Higher Commit-tee to represent the Christians in 1936; member of the delegation at the London Conference, St. James Palace, February 1939; rejected the Government's White Paper proposal.  

 

SABA, FU'AD (1902-)
Born in Acre; graduate of the American University of Beirut, 1920; accountant; first licensed auditor to practice under the British Mandate; founder of an ac-countancy firm (Saba & Company) in 1920 in Haifa with offices in Syria, Lebanon and TransJordan; helped to set up the Palestinian National Fund in 1930; leading member of the Palestine Arab Party; appointed secretary of the Arab Higher Committee in June 1936 before being deported to the Seychelles Islands (1937) by the British for his political activities; attended, as secretary, the 1939 London Conference, St. James Palace; rejected the White Paper proposal; in the 1940s Managing Director of the Palestine-based Al-Mashriq Financial Investment Company Ltd. and consultant to the Arab Bank; moved his company after the 1948 war to Beirut and Amman and from there expanded throughout the Middle East.  

 

SAKAKINI, KHALIL (1880-1953)
Born in 1880 in Jerusalem; Greek-Orthodox; writer and educator; went to America to engage in business while still young but returned unsuccessful to Palestine when the Young Turk Revolt broke out; became a leader and organizer of the struggle against the patriarchate; elected member of the delegation to Istanbul in 1909 to protest the deposition of the Brotherhood; founder and head of several private schools in Jerusalem (such as the Dusturiyya School in 1909) and official in the Palestinian Education Department; June 1923, secretary of the Congress of the Arab Executive Committee of Palestine, held in Jaffa; Inspector of the Education Department of Jerusalem in mid-30s; died on August 13, 1953 in Cairo.  

 

SALAH, ABDEL-LATIF ( - 1954)
Born in Nablus, assumed various positions during the late Othoman era and the early Arab government set up by Amir Faisal in Damascus. He was the first Head of the Law Institiute in Damascus. Following the fall of Faisal rule, he returned to Nablus; established in the 1920s the Hizb al-Ahali party to compete with the Nablus MCA; representative for the Nablus district of the Supreme Muslim Council from 1922-26 and its member in the early 1930s; founder and leader of the National Bloc, a moderate party which was established in October 1935 and which stood for political independence of Palestine; member and representative of his party in the Arab Higher Committee. He died in 1954.  

 

SALAMEH, HASSAN (Abu Ali) ( -1948)
from Qula near Lydda; became member of Abd al-Qader al-Husseini's Jihad al-Muqaddas (Holy War) army in 1934; commander during the 1936-39 revolt in the Lydda district; member of the Palestine Arab Party; as regional commander chief member of the Bureau of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, established in 1938 by resistance groups; during the 1948 war, leader of a resistance group acting in the centre (Lydda-Ramleh) of the country; killed in Ras al-Ein (Ramleh) battle on June 2, 1948.  

 

SHA'ATH, TAJ EDDIN (1880-)
Born in Gaza City in 1880; elected mayor of Beer Sheva 1927; one of the leading business man in Palestine.  

 

AL-SHAWWA, HAJ SA'ID (-1930)
Leading Gaza notable; grain exporter; Gaza delegate to the 1st Palestinian Arab Congress, held in Jerusalem, 1919; stood for Palestinian independence; member of the Supreme Muslim Council, highest body in charge of Muslim community affairs, in the 1920s; representative of Southern Palestine/Gaza in the Supreme Muslim Council in 1922-1929; representative of the Jerusalem sanjak (autonomous district); represented Gaza at the 1st, 4th and 5th Palestinian National Congress held in 1919, 1920 and 1922; mayor of Gaza; died in October 1930.  

 

SHOMAN, ABDUL-HAMID (1888- )
Born in 1888 in Beit Hanina, Jerusalem; emigrated to the USA in 1911 where he worked as a salesman; returned rich to Palestine in 1929 and founded the Arab Bank (July 1930 in Jerusalem), which established branches in all major towns in Palestine and in the capitals of neighboring Arab countries and became the most prestigious private Arab banking institution in the Arab world; had a close relationship with the Mufti and was twice detained by the British during the 1936-39 revolt for his support of the national cause; his son,-Abdul-Majeed, later became chairman of the Palestine National Fund (PLO's financial section).  

 

SHIBR, GEORGE SABA (1893-)
Born in Jerusalem in 1893; graduated engineer (1914, from a Polytechnic Institute in England); taught in the Victoria College, Alexandria in 1918; in 1923, appointed as engineer in the Islamic Waqf department in Jerusalem; participated in the renovation of the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, al-Haram al-Ibrahimi in Hebron, and Nabi Samuel Mosque.  

 

TAHA, SAMI (1916-1946)
Palestinian trade unionist; born in Arraba area near Jenin; raised in Haifa; important figure and leader of the Palestinian labour movement, mainly in the Palestinian Arab Worker's Society (PAWS) which was established in 1925 as a moderate trade union movement; was about 30 years old when assassinated in Haifa on September 11, 1946.  

 

TANNOUS, IZZAT (1896-1969)
Born in Nablus in 1896; politician and medical doctor; representative of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee at the United Nations General Assembly during the British Mandate; politically pro-majlesiyoun; head of the Arab Office in London during the Great Revolt of 1936; tried to prevent partition in negotiating with the British and demanding them to alter their policy; headed the Arab Higher Committee delegation to the UN in the 1950s.  

 

TUQAN, IBRAHIM (-1941)
Poet; graduate of the American University of Beirut in 1934; from 1936-41 as Sub-director in charge of the Arabic Programme Section of the Jerusalem Palestine Broadcasting Station; died on May 2, 1941 in Jerusalem.  

 

TUQAN, SULAIMAN (PASHA) (-1958)
Mayor of Nablus in the early 1940s; among those who pleaded that a Palestinian delegation be allowed to participate in the armistice negotiation in Rhodes, 1948/49; member of various Jordanian cabinets in the 1950s; Minister of Agriculture and Defence. Appointed Minister of Defense and Military Governor(1957); assassinated in the Iraqi revolt (14 July 1958).  

 

ZU'AITER, ADEL (1897-1957)

Author, lawyer and translator from Nablus (translated, among others, works of Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire); co-founder of an opposition party (The People's Party, opposing the traditional leadership and its national movement) in April 1925; elected in Nablus to the 7th Congress of the Arab Executive Committee in June 1928; member of the Arab Executive in 1932.

 

 

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