Born in Izjim near Haifa in 1909; studied at Cairo’s Al-Azhar University and at Dar Al-’Ulum in Cairo; joined the Muslim Brotherhood while in Egypt; returned to Palestine and worked in administrative positions with the Islamic Court system in Haifa, Hebron, Jaffa and Jerusalem; became a religious scholar and was appointed as judge in Islamic courts throughout Palestine during the British Mandate; fled to Beirut during the 1948 War; returned soon after to Palestine and worked as Islamic court judge in Jerusalem and as teacher at the Islamic College in Amman; published a book entitled The Salvation of Palestine in 1950; broke with the Muslim Brotherhood, criticizing their close links with the Jordanian government as well as their “inauthentic” Islam; in 1951, established and headed the Islamic Liberation Party (Hizb At-Tahrir) in Jerusalem, which advocated a militant Pan-Islamic and anti-Western stance vis-à-vis the liberation of Palestine and called for the replacement of the Jordanian regime with an Islamic government, for which he was arrested; in 1952-1953, went to Syria and Lebanon to spread his movement; later also traveled to Iraq and Egypt; died in Beirut in 1977; his publications include The Ruling System in Islam (Arabic).
Born in Ijzim, near Haifa, in 1849; studied at Al-Azhar, Cairo, from 1866-72; lived in Acre for a while, then was appointed judge in Jenin; worked as editor of Al-Jawaneb newspaper in Constantinople from 1876-78; was sent as Judge to Mosul, where he lived for 15 months among the Kurds; then moved briefly back to the Palestine and returned to Istanbul, where he lived from 1880-82, devoting his time to writing on Islamic religious themes; was appointed Chairman of a Criminal Tribunal in Latakia, Syria, serving from 1882-87; then became Chairman of the Criminal Court in Jerusalem; in around 1888 was appointed Chairman of the Legal Court in Beirut, where he lived for some 20 years and wrote numerous manuscripts; after the declaration of the Ottoman Constitution in 1908, moved to Al-Medina in Saudi Arabia; returned to Palestine after WWI; died in 1932.
Born in Nablus in 1870; son of Hassan Nabulsi; was educated in Nablus, then studied at Al-Azhar University in Cairo; returned to Palestine where he inherited his father’s wealth and was popular among soap dealers in Egypt; known as a pious Muslim; in 1934, one of the founders and supporters of the Palestinian Defense Party, as whose treasurer he served at times; remembered for his charitable work during the strike of 1936; kept a rich library which is a reference for old manuscripts; built a mosque in Nablus and donated his personal library to it; the mosque and a soap factory in Nablus still carry his name; died in 1940.
A prominent businessman specialized in importing grain and other commodities to Egypt where he resided after 1948. He moved in the seventies of the last century to Lebanon where be established a successful business including export, import, finance and banking. Died in Beirut in 1997
Born in Nablus around 1900; educated in Nablus; studied at the AUC; returned to Palestine, where he worked in the soap industry in Nablus; after WWI, established a soap factory holding his name and was recognized from its logo depicting a tiger (the Arabic word ‘nimr’, his second name, means tiger); contributed to different Arab financial projects, incl. the Insurance Company, Financial Investment, the Arab Bank, etc.; died in 1951.
Born in Nablus in 1917; son of Haj Nimr Nabulsi;brother of Hassan, Radi, Hashem, and Omar Nabulsi;completed his education in Safad; managed the Nabulsi family’s business in Nablus; became a member of various clubs and organizations in Nablus; was among the notables who founded various business companies as well as the Arab Chamber of Commerce in Nablus; died in Cairo on 16 June 1985.
Born in the US in 1957; was educated in Beirut, New York, Rabat, the UK, and Paris; was a PLO representative from 1977-90 serving at the UN, Beirut, Tunis, and the UK; founding member of the Palestinian Women’s Union, UK Branch, in 1987; was advisory member of the Palestinian delegation to the Madrid and subsequent Washington talks between 1991-93; studied Politics at Balliol College, Oxford, and received an MPhil in 1992 and a DPhil in 1996; was a Prize Research Fellow in Politics at Nuffield College, Oxford University from 1998-2005; served as Specialist Advisor to the UK All Party Parliamentary Commission of Enquiry on Palestinian Refugees (and its ‘Right of Return’ report in 2000) from 1999-2005, and to the House of Commons Select Committee’s Enquiry on Development Assistance and the OPT from 2004-2005 and its report on Donor Assistance (2005); led the British Academy-funded research project “Republicans without Republics: National and International Networks in the Construction of State in 19 th Century Europe” from 2000-2003; currently fellow in Politics and Director of the Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) program at the St. Edmund Hall, Oxford; University lecturer and Director of Graduate Research at the Dept. of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University; also directs an EU-funded collective research project at Nuffield on “Foundations for Participation: Civic Structures in Palestinian Refugee Camps and Exile Communities” (the proceedings of which will be published in 2006); also serves as Patron of the Palestine Solidarity Campaign, as advisor for the Badil Center Legal Unit (and member of its expert forum), Bethlehem, and of Arab Media Watch, UK; Chair of Trustees of the London-based Hoping Foundation (which supports grassroots organizations working with Palestinian youth in refugee camps); member of the Chatham House Middle East Roundtable 1988-2005, has written numerous articles and chapters and is author of Traditions of War: Occupation, Resistance and the Law (Oxford University Press, 1999).
Born in Jaffa in 1906; was educated at An-Najah School in Nablus; then enrolled at the AUB for two years, from where he moved to the University of Geneva, Switzerland, to study Medicine, graduating in 1930; moved to Paris where he was trained in hospitals for two years; returned to Palestine in 1933; opened his private clinic in Jaffa, but was soon appointed by the Jordanian government as a doctor in Amman; returned to his clinic years later after his resignation; was among the founders of the Arab Medical Society in Jaffa and served as its Secretary for ten years; became Director of the Medical Administration in the Arab League office in Cairo; died in 1992.
Born in Nablus on 1 April 1936; was educated at the Victoria College in Alexandria from 1946-53, then enrolled at Cairo University, where he received a BA in Law in 1959; also received a Diploma of Higher Legal Studies in International Law from Ein Shams University, Egypt; worked as a legal advisor for Sascam Co. Tripoli, Libya, from 1959-60; served as attaché at the Arab League in Cairo from 1960-69; was appointed Deputy Chief of the Hashemite Royal Court during 1969-70; then became Jordanian Minister of National Economy (1970-72), Ambassador of Jordan to the UK (1972-73), and Minister of Agriculture and of National Economy (1973-75); left Jordan to work as legal advisor at the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development in Kuwait from 1975-77; returned to Jordan and became Minister of Labor and of Development and Reconstruction from 1979-80; in 1980, was a founder and senior partner of the law firm Nabulsi & Associates in Amman; served as Senator (member of the Jordanian Upper House of Parliament) from 1989-1993; also was Chairman of the Jordan Electricity Authority, the Industrial Development Corporation, the Encouragement of Investment Committee, and the General Social Security Cooperation; member of the National Planning Council and the State Budget Committee; former Board member of the Arbitration System of the Euro-Arab Chambers of Commerce and member of the Jordan National Consultative Assembly.
A landowner of a large estate of orange groves in the area west of Tulkarem on the Mediterranean coast. He expanded his ownership up to two thousand dunums, and organized his farms according to the most modern agricultural techniques. The farms were irrigated by more than ten artesian wells. He introduced new crops and fruits such as apples and avocadoes. All his farms were occupied by the aggressors when the fatherland and the Palestinian heritage were lost in the Naqba of 1948. Radi Nabulsi was awarded the title of “Pasha” from King Abdullah.
Born in Jibya village in 1934; joined the Jordanian Communist Party (JCP) soon after its creation and became its Deputy Sec.-Gen.; was arrested after the April 1957 dismissal of the Nabulsi’s government and imprisoned for eight years in Al-Jafar camp; was active in creating the PNF; among the first Palestinians wanted by the Israeli authorities following the occupation in 1967; went underground and organized resistance against the occupation; was eventually arrested by Israel in 1974 and placed for nine months in administrative detention before being deported in Feb. 1975; one of the leaders of the Palestinian Communist Party; was appointed as its representative to the PLO Exec. Committee in April 1987 (until his death in 2001); played a key role in reconciling various resistance groups; participated in establishing the Palestinian People’s Party (PPP) in 1991 and was elected member of its Central Committee and politburo; one of nine PLO Exec. Committee members who signed a statement rejecting the Oslo II Agreement on 4 Oct. 1995; died from cancer in the US on 12 Aug. 2001; was buried in Ramallah on 18 Aug. 2001.
Born in Al-Bireh in 1959; received a BSc in Civil Engineering from the UK; worked as Project Manager at the Hussein Ateih Establishment in Amman and as Contracts and Production Manager at Aluminum & Light Industries Co. in Sharjah, UAE; founder, Managing Director and senior consultant at Management Consulting Services Co. in Al-Bireh since 1995; was involved, among others, in the establishment of the Casino in Jericho; received an Executive MBA from the Kellogg-Recanati International Executive Program, Tel Aviv University, in 1998; was elected Secretary of the Board of Trustees of Paltrade; served as Deputy Chairman of the Palestine Cellular Company JAWWAL from 1999-2004; is a Board member of the Palestine Telecommunications Company (PALTEL), the Palestine Electricity Company, the National Aluminum and Profile Company, the National Beverage Company (Coca Cola), the Jordan Vegetable Oil Company, Palestine Industrial Estate Development & Management Company and the Palestine Tourism Investment Company; founding member of the Palestinian Economic Forum in Jerusalem.
Born in Yibna (Al-Majdal) in 1929; completed his secondary education at Al-Ibrahimiyyeh School in Jerusalem; became a refugee in 1948, fleeing to Gaza (Rafah camp); worked as a teacher in the camp until 1956; joint the Muslim Brotherhood from 1951-58; was arrested by Egypt in early 1954 for participating in demonstrations for a Palestinian army; was imprisoned in March 1955 for two years for protesting Egyptian resettlement of Palestinian refugees in the North Sinai; GUPS member; in 1957, left Gaza by ship and went to Syria, then Amman, and Qatar, where he worked in the Educational Dept.; left the Muslim Brotherhood and helped set up Fateh in the late 1950s; had an active role in setting up organizations similar to Fateh in Saudi Arabia and Qatar; worked as a school teacher; was a member of the Fateh Central Committee from its creation until his death; was also elected member of the PLO Exec. Committee at the 5 th PNC (1-4 Feb. 1969); leader and operational head of the Black September Organization (operated 1970-74); elected Chairman of the Lebanese-Palestinian Committee (which was formed in 1973 to negotiate an end to the clashes between PLO and Lebanese forces in Lebanon); became head of Fateh’s new security apparatus in Sept. 1971, and coordinated Al-‘Assifa (Fateh’s military arm); became head of the PLO’s Political Dept. in Jan. 1973; headed the Palestinian delegation to the Fourth Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers meeting in Benghazi, Libya, on 24-26 March 1973; became chair of the Higher Political Committee for Palestinian Affairs in Lebanon; was assassinated - together with his wife and Fateh leaders Kamal Adwan and Kamal Nasser - by Israeli forces in Beirut on 10 April 1973.
Born in Jerusalem, in 1947; went to school in the West Bank; taught at Birzeit University in the early 1980s; received a BA in English Literature from the AUB in 1968; worked with Jordan Television in Amman, first as Video/Film Director for the Nightly News (1968-70), then as Script-writer/Director for the Children’s Programs (1970-75); also served as UNICEF Consultant to the Children’s Dept. of Abu-Dhabi TV in the UAE for six months in 1974-75; continued her studies in the US and gained an MSc in Telecommunications from Indiana University, Bloomington, in 1977; returned to the West Bank and became a Lecturer from 1983-1986; also worked as part-time editor and photographer at Birzeit’s PR office from 1982-86 and as part-time Assistant to the Vice-Pres. from 1984-85; took up a position as Assistant Instructor at Indiana University during 1986-87; then was Instructor at the East Carolina University from 1988-91; since 1991, Associate Professor of Journalism at the Dept. of Communication, Northern Illinois University, US; serves as Judge for the newspaper photography contest for members of the Northern Illinois Newspaper Association since 1991; studied at the same time towards her PhD which she earned from the School of Journalism at Indiana University in 1992; has been guest or visiting lecturer at New York University, Harvard University, Hamilton College (New York), University of Hawaii and the University of California (Los Angeles); received a Fulbright Scholar Award for research in the West Bank during the 1999-2000 academic year; also serves on the University Press Board of Northern Illinois University since 2003; is a member of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Columbia, the Washington-based International Communication Association, and an Associate of the Women’s Institute for Freedom of the Press; has exhibited her own photographs on different occasion; has authored numerous articles and book chapters on issues related to media and women, as well as co-published (with Kitty Warnock) Portraits of Palestinian Women (University of Utah Press, 1992).
Born in Beit Sahour on 14 Dec. 1915 to a Christian family; graduated from London University with a LLB; qualified as a Barrister at Law at the Society of Lincoln’s Inn, London; represented the Arab Higher Committee for Palestine in New York from 1947-1948; was Representative of the Arab League in Latin America, based in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 1956-1957, holding the rank of Minister Plenipotentiary; senior advisor of the UN Palestinian delegation; represented the Arab Higher Committee for Palestine in New York from the early 1960s until his death; attended numerous sessions of the UNGA and addressed the UN Special Committee on Palestine over 50 times; was a member of the Palestinian Bar and of many Bar Associations in the Arab World; was also a member of the American Society of International Law (ASIL) and the International Law Association of London; served as legal advisor to a number of Arab delegations at the UN; author of the Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem in two volumes; died on 29 March 2003.
Born in Ar-Rameh on 2 Jan. 1943; received his high school diploma from the St. Joseph’s Seminary in Nazareth; BA in Sociology, St. John’s University, Collegeville, Minnesota, USA (1967); worked as a teaching assistant at the Dept. of Anthropology at Indiana University, Bloomington, from 1969-72; earned a PhD in Socio-Cultural Anthropology from Indiana University in 1973; became Assistant Professor at the Dept. of Sociology at St. John’s University from 1972-79; was also a visiting lecturer at the Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa, during 1975-76); worked as program field coordinator at The Jerusalem Fund in Washington, DC, and developed the fund’s scholarship program from 1979-80; became Director of the Institute of Arab Studies, Belmont, Massachusetts, USA, running the Institute during its infancy (1980-82), then joined it as research fellow (1982-84); left to take up the post of Program Director at the Welfare Association in Geneva, Switzerland, serving 1984-93; during 1993-94, worked as a Consultant for the Welfare Association, the Euro-pact in Versailles, France (on behalf of the European Commission), and NOVIB in The Hague, Netherlands; returned to the West Bank as Consultant of the UNDP-commissioned Center for Engineering and Planning in Ramallah in 1994; also acted as Consultant for the European Commission Representative Office in Jerusalem from 1994-98); was briefly a Program Manager at the UNDP in Jerusalem in 1995; worked as Educational Planning Coordinator at the Palestinian Curriculum Development Center in 1996, and as Acting Dir.- Gen. at the PA Ministry of Higher Education, Ramallah, in 1998; became an education expert with the MEDA Team West Bank and Gaza Strip in 1998-1999, then team leader and education expert of its technical assistance to the European Commission Representative Office from 1999-2001; was a Board of Trustees member of the Arab-American University of Jenin from 2000-02; member of the Steering Committee on the Strategy of Palestinian Higher Education (and Advisor to the Palestinian Minister of Higher Education) from 2000-02; served as head of the Accreditation and Quality Assurance Commission for Higher Education Institutions from 2002-2004; and the Advisory Board member for the Ministry of Women’s Affairs since March 2004; Consultant/Advisor to the Ministry of Women’s Affairs in 2004; was Director of the Qattan Center for Educational Research and Development from mid-2004 until March 2005; since then works as independent thinker, researcher and writer from Ramallah; has published numerous studies and articles as well as authored and edited several books, incl. his publications include The Sociology of the Palestinians (with Elias Zureik, London & New York: Croom Helm and St. Martin’s Press, 1980), Indigenous Organizations In Palestine (Jerusalem: Arab Thought Forum, 1990), and The Myth of Palestinian Development: Political Aid and Sustainable Deceit. Ramallah (English by PASSIA; Arabic by Muwatin, 2004).
Born in Jerusalem on 28 May 1943; started working at the Photo Yergatian shop in Jerusalem at the age of 13 and soon became a skillful photographer; had his first photography assignment for local newspapers in 1958, aged 15, when he was sent to take pictures of the arrival of the UN Sec.-Gen. Dag Hammarskjold at the Qalandia Jerusalem airport; also spent much time in Photo Yergatian’s darkroom to prepare films from Iraq for the newspapers (reporting about the Iraqi-Jordanian coalition); began experimenting with color printing, in which he soon also gained proficiency; moved to work with Photo Roxy in the Christian Quarter of the Old City in late 1958; at the same time, became the official photographer of the King of Belgium during his visit to Jerusalem; joined Photo Deyana, where he also began developing color slide films, for which Deyana was the only lab in the area at the time; opened – with his brother Mardo – his own shop in 1960 in Jerusalem, photographing, among others, for the Time life and Newsweek magazines, as well as the construction work undertaken on Dome of the Rock; won many prizes in a worldwide photography competition by Kodak Eastman; became the official photographer of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in 1961 and the official photographer of Pope Paul VI on his visit to the Holy Land in 1964; also filmed movies and traveled a lot, collecting one of the largest photo achieves of the Holy Land, Jordan, Egypt, Cyprus, and many other countries; his photos have been used in numerous books and he has provided the photographs for some 25 illustrated books, incl. Jerusalem, City of Jesus (Richard M. Mackwoski, Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1980), Living Stones Pilgrimage With the Christians of the Holy Land (Betty Bailey/Allison Hilliard, Cassell, 1998) and Bethlehem 2000: Past and Present (Mitri Raheb/Fred Strickert, Palmyra Verlag, 1998).
Born in Jerusalem in April 1940; obtained a teachers’ training diploma; studied at Baghdad University, Iraq, graduating with a BA in Fine Arts in 1968; returned to Palestine and taught at various schools in Jerusalem and Ramallah; from 1970, worked as Fine Arts Teacher at a Women Teachers’ Training Institute in Jordan; later was nominated by the Jordanian Ministry of Education to become Art Education Supervisor for the Irbid district; also supervised schools in Jerusalem and worked as Fine Arts Teacher with UNRWA and UNESCO, among others at the Teachers’ Training Institute in Ramallah and as Fine Arts and Crafts Specialist at schools in the OPT, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon; obtained a degree in Architecture from Bournemouth College, UK, in 1981; besides her teaching profession, worked as an artist; participated in many solo and group exhibitions, both locally and abroad; was a member of the Palestine Red Crescent Society, the British Society of Artists and Designers, and the Palestinian Fine Artists Association; served on the Board of Directors of the Jericho District Cooperative Housing Society; was founding Board member of the Palestinian Academic and Professional Women’s Association (and Pres. of its Jerusalem branch for some time); died in Oct. 2004.
Born in Ar-Rameh, near Acre, on 18 Jan. 1912; his family moved to Haifa in 1919; was educated in several schools in Haifa and the St. George’s School in Jerusalem; moved to the National University in ‘Aleih, Lebanon, then enrolled at the AUB in 1928 to study Engineering but left for Damascus University in 1930 and changed his major to Law, graduating in 1933; returned and worked as a lawyer in Palestine; was active in the 1936 Revolt; among the leaders of the An-Nahda Orthodox Society in the 1940s; became a Marxist; among the founders of the National Liberation League; joined the ANM in 1944; among the founders of Al-Mihmaz newspaper in 1946 and editor of its political section; member of the Arab Fund branch in Haifa, established in 1946 to protect Arab land from Zionist confiscation;practiced as lawyer in Acre during the 1948 War and was not allowed to return to Haifa afterwards; moved to Lebanon instead, from where he tried again to return to Haifa but was arrested by Zionist forces and imprisoned until 1951; resumed his work as lawyer, defending land cases as well as fighting for more justice for Arabs inside the Green Line; was able to convince and defend farmers in Majd Al-Kuroum to reject temporary red ID cards (whose holders were soon deported) and receive blue ID cards instead; had a similar role in saving the residents of Bi’na village from deportation; was among the founders of the Society for the Defense of the Arab Minority in Israel; believed in joint Arab-Jewish work for justice; among the initiators of the Arab-Jewish conference both in Oct. 1954 and Feb. 1956, demanding equality and citizenship rights for Arabs and the end of Israeli military rule and land expropriation; died in 1983 .
Born in 1948 in Birzeit (near Ramallah) to a Christian family; educated at the Talitha Kumi College in Beit Jala/Bethlehem; studied Biology, Geography and Education at the University of Hamburg, Germany, from 1967-74; returned and joined Birzeit University, first as a lecturer of Biology and Ecology (1974-79); studied from 1979-82 on a DAAD scholarship and gained a doctorate in Biology/Applied Botany from Hamburg University; worked as Assistant Professor of Biology from 1982-97; also served as Assistant to the Vice-Pres. for Academic Affairs from 1986-89; co-founder and member of different women organizations, incl. the Birzeit Women Charitable Society (since 1978); Board member of the Arab Thought Forum in Jerusalem from 1983-99 and member of its Executive Committee from 1989-94; also Board member of the Arab Studies Society since 1992; member of the Board of Directors of the Global Fund for Women, San Francisco, US; Director of the Jerusalem Center for Women, founded in 1994; involved in Israeli-Palestinian women’s initiatives for peace and co-founder of the Jerusalem Link (the coordinating body of an Israeli and a Palestinian women’s center: Bat Shalom and the Jerusalem Center for Women) ; co-founder and Board member of the Birzeit Public Library from 1997-2001; one of the founders of the “Waging Peace Global Network” at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, launched in Dec. 1999; guest professor at the University of Augsburg, Germany, from Oct. 2003; co-founder of the German-Palestinian Society; received many awards for her efforts as women and peace advocate, incl. the 1989 Honorary Doctorate from the Theological Faculty of the University of Münster; the Bruno-Kreisky Prize for Human Rights in 1995, the Mount Zion Award for Reconciliation in 1997, the Peace Prize of the City of Augsburg, Germany, in 2000, the Hermann-Kesten Medal from the German PEN Center in 2002, and the Bremen Solidarity Prize in 2003; her publications include her biography Thyme and Stones (1995), for which she received the Protestant Book Prize, and Daughter of the Olive Trees (2002).
Born in Jerusalem on 8 Feb. 1913; studied Law at the Sorbonne, Paris, and at London University; foreign affairs commentator at the Palestine Broadcasting Services’ Arabic Section from 1938-39; member of the Palestine Broadcasting Services from 1939-41; worked in the Arab Offices established by Musa Alami inLondon and the US; elected Pres. of the Committee for the Arab Property Owners in Jerusalem which was established in 1949 with the purpose to reclaim Arab owned properties in the Jewish-held area of the city; Rent Commissioner and member of the Advisory Committee on Manpower to the Palestine Government; worked as Barrister-at-law and advocate in Jerusalem; his books include: From Munich to Warsaw (Arabic, 1939); Examining the National Field (Arabic, 1949); died in 2005.
Born in Jerusalem in 1903; early education at the Sultaniyyeh College in Istanbul, graduating in 1917; studied Literature and Philosophy at the AUB (1919) and at the University of London, majoring in Journalism and Political Science in 1930; began his career as editor of the English weekly Falastin published in Jaffa after 1929; served as Secretary to the fourth Palestinian delegation to London in 1930; became a district officer for the British authorities in 1931; served as Press Attaché to the British Consulate General in Beirut in 1938; rejoined the British Mandatory Government as Assistant Public Information Officer and Press Censor in charge of the Jaffa-Tel Aviv area in 1940; was appointed Controller of Arabic Programs and Publicity at the Palestine Broadcasting Services in 1944; received the Jordanian Independence Award in 1945 and the MBE (Member British Empire) Award from the British government in 1946; became member of the Rotary Club in 1932 and its Chairman in 1944; also member of the Islamic Sports Club in Jaffa; was named by King Abdullah I as governor of Ramallah on 15 May 1948; chairman of the Jordan delegation to the Mixed Armistice Commission in 1949; member of the Jordanian government in the 1950s, but resigned in 1955 in protest over Jordan joining the Baghdad Pact; died in 1995.
Born in Baghdad in 1899; nephew of Ragheb Nashashibi; worked in the British Mandate government during the early 1920s; was a founding member of Al-Hizb Al-Watani (Palestine Arab National Party), established in Nov. 1923; one of the leading figures in the Nashashibi-led opposition during the Mandate period; was blamed for the scandalous forging of letters written by Prince Shakib Arsalan, which he published in Al-Jami’a Al-Islamiyyah newspaper; worked for the Arab Chamber of Commerce in Jaffa; joined the Arab Revolt of 1936; supported the 1937 Partition Plan of the British and became a leading member in the National Defense Party in 1938 and a fierce opponent of Haj Amin Al-Husseini and his forces, who made several attempts on his life during the late 1930s; with the outbreak of WWII, moved to Baghdad (and later Syria and Lebanon) where he organized the ‘peace bands,’ recruiting Palestinians to collaborate with the British army; published a book titled The Martyr Graves of Palestine (Arabic, 1938); was assassinated in Baghdad on 8 Nov. 1941 by what is believed to have been supporters of the Mufti; buried in Jerusalem.
Born in Jerusalem on 9 Aug. 1951; spent his childhood in Jerusalem until the family moved to Kuwait in 1963; was denied to return after the 1967 War; received a BSc in Electrical Engineering from King’s College, University of London, in 1974; while studying, headed the Arab student organization in London in the early 1970s; then worked in Kuwait as an electrical engineer until leaving to the US to pursue his higher education at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, graduating with an MBA in 1979; worked for several firms, incl. Chase Manhattan Bank, Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Arthur Young & Company, and Arthur Andersen & Co., sometimes with postings abroad (e.g., Australia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Egypt); became a naturalized US citizen; founded his own financial services firm, American Fund Transfer Group, in 1992; was a fierce proponent of Palestinian rights and other human rights causes, and a strong promoter of the Palestinian right of return; was active with the Americans for Middle East Understanding (AMEU); Board member of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee; from its inception in 1995, US-based Director of the ‘Deir Yassin Remembered’ project (www.deiryassin.org), an organization dedicated to the memory of the victims of the 1948 Deir Yassin massacres; frequent freelance writer on Middle East issues (at times writing under the nickname Masai Kenyata); died of a heart attack in his home in Atlanta, Georgia, on 28 Aug. 2003.
Born in Jerusalem in 1882; educated at the Frères College in Jerusalem and the Patriarchal School in Beirut, where he was tutored by the notable Arabic language expert Al-Bustani; expressed opposition to Zionism as early as 1909 in his literary work As-Sahir wa Al-Yahudi (The Wizard and the Jew); returned to Jerusalem and occupied himself with literature and philosophy until the end of WWI; taught Arabic language, among others at Sahaliyyah College in Jerusalem; was known as Adib Al-Arabiya (Scholar of Arabic Language); became Director of Ar-Rashidiyah School in Jerusalem after WWI; was a leading founding member of the Muntada Al-Adabi (Literary Club) in 1918; built himself a palace in Jerusalem that also housed a special book collection frequented by many visiting scholars (today the palace has been transformed to the Is’af Nashashibi Cultural Center, located in the neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah); served for nine years as educational inspector for the British Mandate authorities, contributing to the improvement of the curriculum and textbooks; moved to Cairo in 1947, planning to return to Palestine once the situation improved there but passed away; was described as ‘Walking Arabic Dictionary’; was a member of the Arab Scientific Society in Damascus; was a prolific essayist and has authored several books, incl. An Arab Heart and European Mind (Arabic, 1923) and The Correct Islam (Arabic, 1935); died on 18 Jan. 1948 in Cairo; his unique book collection was looted by Jewish forces in the course of the 1948 Nakba.
Born in Jerusalem in 1925; former Palestinian Ba‘ath leader in Syria; after 1960, pro-Nasserist; long-term independent PLO Exec. Committee member, heading the PLO Economics Dept.; member of the PLO Central Council; served as Chair of the PNF in Amman and Tunis; former Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Al-Quds University, Jerusalem; member of the PA’s High Council for Refugee Camps; returned to Palestine following the signing of the Oslo Accords in June 1994 via Jericho as first PLO Exec. Committee member to do so; was appointed PA Finance Minister, serving in the post from 1994-2000; was appointed by Pres. Yasser Arafat as member of the ‘Palestinian Higher Development Council’, established in Jan. 2000 with the goal to promote investment in the PA and to control PA financial matters; currently serves as head of the PLO Economic Dept..
Born in Jerusalem on 16 July 1915; father of Issam Mufid Nashashibi; graduated from St. George’s School in Jerusalem; began studying at the AUC but was interrupted when he was deported for organizing and marching against the British occupation of Egypt; received a degree in Civil Engineering from Robert College in Istanbul; returned to Jerusalem in 1936 and worked as an environmental engineer for the Jerusalem Municipality under the British Mandate; in 1943, co-founded – with Haidar Abdel Shafi, Mukhlis Amer, Emil Tuma and Emil Habibi - the National Liberation League (Usbat Al-Taharrur Al-Watani) , a progressive nationalist organization which grew out of the PCP; when UNSCOP scheduled deliberations on the fate of Palestine in 1947, was among those who met secretly in Jerusalem with the Yugoslav alternate representative to UNSCOP and formulated the federal solution for Palestine which was later known as the UNSCOP ‘Minority Opinion’; after the 1949 Armistice, helped expedite the issuance of restaurant and hotel business licenses to jump-start East Jerusalem’s tourism industry; became Manager of engineering services at UNRWA the same year; among other things, surveyed, planned, designed and supervised the construction of refugee dwellings that remain in use today; continued his studies on a World Health Organization scholarship in 1952 and earned an MA in Public Health from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; moved with his family from Jerusalem to Kuwait in 1962 to take up the post of project manager for the construction of the Kuwait Sewage System; was unable to return to Jerusalem once the project was completed because of the 1967 Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem, and moved first to Lebanon in early 1970, then to California, US in the early 1980s; dedicated himself to researching the history of Palestine and to recording Israel’s violations of Palestinian human rights; returned to Jerusalem in Dec. 1996 to promote and support the Deir Yassin Remembered organization; died on 24 March 1999.
Born in 1920 in Jerusalem; nephew of Isa’f Nashashibi; studied at Ar-Rashidiyyeh School and graduated in 1936; continued his education at the National University at ‘Aleih in Lebanon, graduating in 1938; then studied Economics and Political Science at the AUB, graduating with an MA in 1943; became a member of the Arab League’s Arab Office in 1945; worked as political analyst at the Palestine Radio in 1946; served as Chief of Protocol and advisor to King Abdullah I of Jordan from 1949-51; became General Manager of the Jordanian Radio in 1952; Manager of Akhbar Al-Yaum newspaper and journalist from 1953-58; was appointed by Egyptian Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser to become Chief Editor of Al-Jumhuriyya, serving from 1959-66; was appointed Ambassador at large for the Arab League in 1966; later worked as diplomatic correspondent for Egypt’s Al-Ahram in Europe for several years; was known for his close relationships with many Arab leaders; has written numerous articles and over 40 books, often very critical of Arab leaders and politics, incl. Steps in Britain (Arabic, 1949), When They Entered History (Arabic, 1956), Palestine and Unity (Arabic, 1959), An Arab in China (Arabic, 1965), Why Have We Reached Here? (Arabic, 1985), Let’s Not Talk Politics (Arabic, 2001), and his book in English Jerusalem ’s Other Voice: Raghib Nashashibi and Moderation in Palestinian Politics, 1920-1948 ( Exeter, 1990).
Born in Jerusalem in 1882; graduated in Civil Engineering from the University of Constantinople; returned and became District Engineer in Jerusalem under the Ottoman Empire; in 1914, elected to the Ottoman parliament as Jerusalem representative until 1918; was and remained a lifetime opposition leader against the Husseini family; became head of the Ottoman Dept. of Public Works; was a member of the All-Syrian Congress in 1919; returned and replaced Musa Kathem (Pasha) Al-Husseini as mayor of Jerusalem from May 1920-Jan. 1935; welcomed British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel to Jerusalem in July 1920; was a founding member and leading figure of Al-Hizb Al-Watani (Palestine Arab National Party), founded in Nov. 1923; was elected mayor of Jerusalem in 1927 in the first municipal elections since the British Mandate began; became Pres. of the Congress of Palestinian Mayors; was a member of the Palestinian delegation to London in March 1930; founded, on 2 Dec. 1934, and led the National Defense Party (Hizb Ad-Difa’a Al-Watani); was a member and his party’s representative in the Arab Higher Committee formed in 1936; resigned from the Arab Higher Committee in preparation to accept partition; was appointed head of the new Jordanian Ministry for Refugees and Rehabilitation in Aug. 1949; also appointed first Governor-General for Arab Palestine in Sept. 1949; was appointed in Jan. 1950 as Custodian of the Holy Places of Jerusalem with cabinet rank; that same year became Jordanian Minister of Agriculture and later of Transport; died from cancer in Jan. 1951.
Born in Jerusalem in 1962; received a BA in Business Administration from Birzeit University in 1982; worked at the student counseling office of the American Consulate from 1982-84; continued her studies in the US, graduating with an MA in Counseling Psychology from Indiana State University in 1986; became Program Coordinator and Assistant Director of the Palestinian Counseling Center from 1986-88; then worked as Registrar at the College of Arts for Women, Al-Quds University, from 1988-91; since 1991, Director of the Palestinian Counseling Center; was a lecturer in Developmental Psychology and Counseling at Al-Quds University from 1992-1998; was awarded the Hubert Humphrey Fellowship and spent a year at the University of Washington in 1994-95; ran in the first PLC elections in Jan. 1996 as a candidate for the Jerusalem constituency but was not elected; began lecturing in Counseling Theory and Practice at Birzeit University in 1996; served as a Consultant of the PA Ministries of Social Affairs and Education from 1997; was supervisor of a workers’ hotline at the Women’s Center for Legal Aid and Counseling from 1998-2000; also supervised social workers and counselors at the Palestinian Working Women’s Society for Development from 1999-2001; since 2002, PhD candidate at the European Graduate School, Switzerland; has been involved in activities at the Tamer Institute for Community Development and the Palestinian Center for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims; serves as Board member of the Arab Resource Collective in Beirut; Steering Committee member of the PNGO; has written several articles on women’s issues and contributed to several publications, incl. The Analogy of Occupation and Rape: the Case of the Palestinian People (2003).
Born in Ramallah on 6 Feb. 1950; to a Christian family; received her High School Certificate from the Friends Girls’ School, Ramallah, in 1969; then attended Birzeit College, receiving an Associate Degree in Arts in 1971; went to Lebanon and studied Development Psychology and Pre-school Education at Beirut University College, graduating with BA in 1973; returned and worked as a teacher at the Friends Girls’ School from 1973-74; between 1974-75, worked in administration and translation at the Saudi Health Office in London; during 1982-85, completed five intensive courses in counseling conducted by the Palestinian Counseling Center and Lutheran schools; became Student Counselor at the Friends Girls’ School from 1983-88, then the School’s Principal from 1988-93; also served as Vice-Pres. of the YWCA Board of Directors from 1990-93; continued her studies 1991-92 and earned an MA in Education in Counseling Processes from the Harvard Graduate School of Education; was an Advisory Committee member of the Jerusalem YMCA’s Rehabilitation Program for Intifada Affected Youth from 1992-93; served as Board member of the Center for Non-violence and Democracy in Jerusalem from 1992-97; undertook post-graduate work within the PhD program of Human Development and Psychology at the Harvard Graduate School of Education during 1993-94; became Director of the Educational Programs at the YWCA from 1994-95; is a member of the UNICEF Task Force Team on Women and Girls Education since 1994; Co-Director of the Ramallah Friends’ Schools from 1995-96; Dir.-Gen. of the Tamer Institute for Community Education from 1996-99; since 2000, serves as Sec.-Gen. of the YWCA; also serves on the Boards of the Princess Basma Center for Disabled Children in Jerusalem, the Bisan Center for Research and Development in Ramallah, the Guidance Training Center, in Bethlehem and Jerusalem, the Palestinian National Conservatory of Music in Ramallah and the Tamer Institute for Community Education in Ramallah.
Born in Jaffa in 1935 to a Christian-Catholic family; son of Musa Nasir; received an MA in Physics from the AUB in 1962, and a PhD in Nuclear Physics from Purdue University, US, in 1967; returned to Palestine after the June 1967 War to participate in the development of Birzeit College into the first University in Palestine; became founding Pres. of the University serving in that post until his deportation by Israeli authorities to Lebanon in Nov. 1974 following pro-PLO student demonstrations; was based in Amman during his years in exile; independent PNC member since 1976; PLO Exec. Committee member from 1977-84 and put in charge of the Palestine National Fund until 1982; later responsible for higher education on PLO committees; returned to the West Bank in April 1993, resuming position as Pres. of Birzeit University until his retirement in 2004; remains chair of the PNC Education Committee; received several awards, incl. the Legion of Honor from France in 1996 and an Honorary Doctorate from the AUC in 2002; was appointed by Pres. Yasser Arafat to head the Central Elections Commission in Oct. 2002; member of the Administrative Board of the International Association of Universities; was UNESCO Rotating Chair in Archaeology 2004.
Born in Beirut on 29 May 1948 to a Christian family; attended the St. George’s School where he graduated in 1966; did his A Levels at Wellington College in the UK; following the War of 1967, resumed his college studies in the US at the University of Hartford, Connecticut, but left in 1969 following the death of his younger brother Peter and enrolled at the AUB, graduating with a BA in Business Administration in 1972; trained in chartered accountancy with Arthur Anderson Co. in Britain from 1972-75; then worked as area manager and financial director in two contracting companies in the Arab Gulf States of Bahrain and Abu Dhabi from 1972-79; returned to Jerusalem in 1979; served on the Boards of the Middle East Council of Churches, the Princess Basma Center for Disabled Children, and St. George’s School in Jerusalem; was appointed Sec.-Gen. of the YMCA in Jerusalem, serving in that post until his death on 27 Sept. 1994.
Born in Birzeit in April 1895 to a Christian family; attended the Bishop Gobat School in Jerusalem; enrolled at the AUC, graduating in Physics in 1914; during WWI, served in the civilian branch of the Ottoman army (communications, medical services and accounting); studied during the last weeks of WWI Economics and Political Science in the Robert College Library in Istanbul; served as a district officer in several Palestinian towns during the British Mandate and was heavily involved in supporting, directing and strategizing for Birzeit College, which was founded and directed by his sister Nabiha Nasir; appointed in 1944 as one of three assistants to the British General Secretary; resigned two years later in protest over the British Government’s policy vis-à-vis Jewish immigration to Palestine; opened a School for Public Administration in his home in Jerusalem, but had to close it down after 1948, when he moved permanently to Birzeit; got directly involved in the affairs of the Birzeit College, especially after his sister died in 1951; took the initiative to mobilize his townsmen and young volunteers to make a census of the displaced people of the 1948 Nakba (those statistics were later given to the International Committee of the Red Cross); later was elected to two consecutive terms in the Jordanian Parliament as one of the Palestinian representatives; also served as cabinet minister; as Minister of Transport, was responsible for building the Qalandia Airport; was also one of the two Palestinian ministers who were instrumental in foiling the attempts at a unilateral peace agreement with Israel during the late King Abdallah’s rule; addressed the UN twice as head of the Jordanian Delegation and as FM, highlighting the Palestinian cause and the refugee problem; retired from political life and concentrated all his efforts on developing Birzeit College and education in general, as well as on advocating the Palestinian cause; in 1962, was appointed head of the Educational Commission, and out in charge of establishing a university in Jordan (which became the University of Jordan in Amman); was also involved in the affairs of his Episcopalian Church and was amongst those who strove tirelessly to appoint an Arab Bishop to his Church, succeeding in this endeavor in 1958; died on 26 Aug. 1971.
Born in Ramallah in 1891; received her education in Bethlehem High School; later joined her sister Wadia in Sudan to continue her education and broadened her skills; founded, together with her friend and teacher Ratibeh Shkeir, a school in the family home in Birzeit in 1924, with the aim of giving young women the opportunity to be educated (at a time when there were hardly any schools in the area); worked as a teacher and served as the director of the school (which developed into two high schools, one for girls, the other for boys, then became an intermediate College at the hands of her brother, Musa Nasir, and in 1974 a full-fledged University); was also politically active, advocating Arab unity as a means of facing the imminent threats that were facing the Palestinians; addressed one of the earliest Arab Women’s Conferences in Cairo in 1938 died in 1951.
Born in Amman on 2 Dec. 1954 to a Palestinian family originally from the village of Al-Bureij near Jerusalem; grew up in Al-Wihdat RC in Jordan; educated at UNRWA schools; received a teaching degree from a training college in the camp; worked as a teacher in Saudi Arabia for two years from 1976-78; returned to Jordan and worked as a journalist for different newspapers, incl. Ad-Dustur, Afaq and Al-Hisad, from 1978-96; was awarded the ‘Arar Literary Prize in Jordan in 1991; worked at the Khaled Shoman Foundation Darat al-Funun, a center for arts and culture in Amman, since 1996, and currently serves as its Director of Cultural Affairs; member of the Jordanian Writers’ Union and the General Union of Arab Writers; also works as a photographer and has held exhibitions in 1995 (Jordan) and 2004 (South Korea); was a member of the Honorary Boardof the Amman Filmmakers Cooperative in 2004; is a member of the General Assembly of the Khalil Sakakini Center in Ramallah; has published several collections of poetry as well as seven novels and two children’s books; received numerous awards, incl. the Sultan Oweiss Prize for his poetry (1987), the Arrar Literary Prize (1991), the Taysir Sbool Prize for a novel (1994) and the Jordanian Writers Society Honorary Prize three times for three of his poetry collections; among his publication are Prairies of Fever (Novel, 1985) and Maraya Al-Malai’ka (Mirrors of Angels - poetry).
Born in Jerusalem in 1969; studied at the Hebrew University, graduating wi th a MA in Political Science and Middle Eastern Studies; he worked as a journalist until 1993; served as political advisor and Israel Desk Officer at Orient House in Jerusalem from 1993-96; then became Director of the Orient House Special Unit, coordinating an experts team who prepared for the final status negotiations on Jerusalem (until 1998); founded the International Peace and Cooperation Center in Jerusalem in 1998 and serves as its head since; is a Research Associate on the Cities in Conflict Project in the Architecture Faculty of Cambridge University; is a PhD candidate in International Relations at the Hebrew University.
Born in Nazareth in 1914; opposed Zionism and joined the resistance in 1929; was the commander of a guerrilla group during the 1936 Revolt and worked with the Arab Higher Committee; was arrested by the British but was able to escape to Iraq; returned to Palestine in 1943; was elected Central Committee member of the National Labor League (NLL - the forerunner of the Communist party) at its first congress in Haifa in 1944; served as Secretary of the Arab Workers Congress in 1945; was part of the stream within the NLL that accepted Partition in its Jan. 1948 general conference, at which he was elected Sec.-Gen.; became the first Sec.-Gen. of the Jordan Communist Party (JCP), into which it developed after Jordanian annexation in 1951; was jailed by Jordan for his political activities until 1956, when he was released by the Nabulsi government; was exiled in 1957; led the wing within the JCP, which favored guerrilla activities adopted a policy of accommodation toward the Jordanian regime (the movement’s other wing was led by Fahmi Al-Salfiti and denigrated the method of armed struggle); in 1969, formed the commando organization Quwwat Al-Ansar (Partisan Forces) (which was disbanded three years later); helped creating the Palestinian National Front in 1973; was the first JCP member to be accepted in the PNC in 1973; died in 1976.
Born in Jerusalem on 10 June 1954; received a BSc in Physics from Birzeit University in 1976; was a member of the Student Council while studying at Birzeit; worked as a teacher; member of the representative committee for Lutheran schools’ teachers, since 1983; continued her studies and received a Diploma in Education from Birzeit University in 1985; was imprisoned on several occasions for political reasons; worked as a Public Relations Coordinator for the Union of Palestinian Women Committees (UPWC) from 1984; was a founding member of the UPWC’s Media Committees from 1985-88; was also member of the Union of Private School Teachers from 1986-90; member of the International Coordinating Committee for NGOs on the Question of Palestine (ICCP) from 1989; Executive Committee member of the UPWC (affiliated with the PFLP) since 1990.
Born in Ein Einub, Lebanon in 1865; was educated in Lebanon; worked as a pharmacist for the Scottish Hospital in Tiberias; then worked in the field of agriculture; founder (in Haifa in 1908) and editor of Al-Karmel, the first Palestinian weekly tackling issues related to the domination of the Zionist movement (until it was closed down by the British government in 1940); was nicknamed the Sheikh of Palestinian Journalists; was the major force behind the foundation of different associations in Haifa, aimed at restricting land sale to Zionist organizations since 1910; published a book entitled Zionism: Its History, Objective and Importance (Arabic, 1911) in which he described Zionism as a racist movement that aims to replace the Palestinians in the Holy Land; favored the program of decentralization of Palestine but maintained his Ottoman loyalty coupled with Palestinian patriotism; was imprisoned in Damascus by the Ottoman authorities in 1918; established the Arab Party in Nazareth that same year; traveled to Karak, Jordan, in 1924 with Jordanian poet Mustafa Wahbi At-Tal, calling for Arab Union; has written several novels and plays as well as numerous critical articles on Zionism; died in the French Hospital in Nazareth following a hernia operation on 28 Dec. 1947, and was buried in the city's Greek Orthodox cemetery.
Born in Ramleh in 1935; studied at Birzeit College (later University), and in Austria and Germany; participated in establishing the Jordanian Music Conservatory (serving as its Pres. at some time) and began a career as musician and educator; returned to Ramallah and assisted in establishing the Palestinian National Music Conservatory in 1993, serving as its head at some point; works as coordinator of the Music Program at Birzeit University; in 1999, a book compiling his compositions since 1951 was published under the title Amin Nasser: Complete Musical Works.
Born in Nablus in 1906; daughter of a clergyman originally from Birzeit; graduated from the AUB in 1933; started a career as teacher in Tiberias, Hebron and Jerusalem; later pursued her career in social work; was evicted from Jaffa, where she was working during the 1948 Nakba, and returned to Birzeit; was appointed Director of the Social Welfare Dept. during the Jordanian rule in the West Bank; founded Rawdat Az-Zuhur (Garden of Flowers) School in 1952 after meeting two little unprivileged girls begging in the street; the school first started as a home for destitute girls and soon became an elementary co-educational school and kindergarten, integrating music and art within the curriculum; dedicated her life for the school children; was awarded a certificate from the National Recreation Association of the USA in 1955 for “Enriching the Human Spirit through Recreation”; retired in 1986; died a year later on 2 April 1987.
Born in Bethlehem in 1936; graduated from the Frères College, Jerusalem, in 1955; worked in the textile business since 1955; owner and Managing Director of the Nasser Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd.; was elected as councilor of Bethlehem in the 1972 elections and appointed by the Municipal Council as the Deputy Mayor of the city; re-elected as councilor in the 1976 elections; was appointed by the Municipal Council as the Deputy Mayor of Bethlehem in 1983, maintaining this position up to May 1997; also served as Deputy Chairman of the Jerusalem District Electricity Co. Ltd. since 1985; appointed by the Minister of Local Government as Mayor of Bethlehem in 1997; serves as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Bethlehem University since 1997.
Born in Gaza in 1925; grew up in his family hometown Birzeit; graduated from Birzeit College in 1941; studied Political Science at the AUB, graduating in 1945 after a six-month period of suspension from the university due to his political activism; worked as a teacher whilst studying Law in Jerusalem; took a teaching post at the Ahliyeh School in Ramallah after 1948; then began a journalistic career by publishing Al-Jil Al-Jadid periodical (The New Generation); resumed his political activism, incl. campaigning for his uncle Musa Nasser in the parliamentary elections; was imprisoned on several occasions for publishing revolutionary articles and poems (the periodical was closed down on those grounds as well); joined the Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party in 1952 and became chief editor of its newspaper Al-Ba‘ath (which was also eventually closed); was elected member of the Jordanian parliament for the Ramallah District in 1956; became a fugitive in Arab countries in the aftermath of an insurgence in Jordan only to return home when general amnesty was declared in 1966; was exiled in Dec. 1967 by the Israeli occupation forces; joined soon after the PLO in 1968 and was elected member of its Exec. Committee in Feb. 1969; met Egyptian Pres. Gamal Abdul Nasser, together with Yasser Arafat, Kamal Nasser and Abdul Razeq Al-Yahya; headed the PLO Dept. of Media and National Guidance; served as its spokesman and as editor of its journal Filastin Ath-Thawra (The Palestine Revolution); due to his integrity earned him the nickname “The Conscience”; published prose articles and poems, incl. Singing Wounds (Arabic, 1960); was killed - along with Kamal Adwan, Mohammed Yousef An-Najjar and the latter’s wife - in an Israeli retaliatory commando raid on Beirut on 10 April 1973, led by Ehud Barak.
Born in Jerusalem on 1 Nov. 1949; was educated at the Frères School in Jerusalem; received an MA in Chemistry from the AUB in 1974; since March 1984, CEO and Chairman of the Board of the Birzeit Palestine Pharmaceutical Company, the largest Pharmaceutical manufacturing entity in Palestine; Board Chairman of the Palestine Printing and Publishing Co. since March 1993; was co-founder and Board member of PalTrade from June 1997-Aug. 1998; served as Chairman of the Palestinian Federation of Industries from Aug. 1999-March 2003; served as Vice-Chairman of the Palestinian Standards Institute from April 2001-March 2003; is a Board member of the Palestinian Investment Promotion Agency (PIPA) since Aug. 2000, of the Palestinian Investment Fund since Oct. 2002, of the Palestinian Industrial Areas Development Co. ( Piedco) since Sept. 2003 and of PalTel since May 2004; serves as Chairman of the Board of Petropal-Hebron since Sept. 2003, of the Ma’an Development Center since May 2004, and of the Lotus Financial Investment since Jan. 2005; Founding Committee Chairman and Chairman of the Board of Alrafah Bank since Sept. 2005.
Born in Daliet Al-Karmel on 3 July 1949 to a Druze family; received a BA in Philosophy from Haifa University in 1976; was Secretary of the Golan Heights Solidarity Committee in the 1980s; was put under restriction of movement and not allowed to leave Israel in 1982; worked as Cultural Editor of Al-Jadid, an Arabic language cultural magazine; was a Board member of Adalah – The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel (2000-2001) and serves on its Board of Directors since 2003; member of the Committee of Palestinian and Israeli Writers Against Occupation and for Peace; works as author and playwright; serves as Director of the Emil Tuma Institute for Palestinian and Israeli Studies in Haifa; editor of Madar, an Arabic language journal published by the Palestinian Forum for Israeli Studies in Ramallah; has written over 25 books as well as plays and translated Hebrew Literature into Arabic; his publications include We Did Not Forget the Old Man’s Story (Arabic, 1983), Did You Kill Anyone There? (Arabic, 1999), and three anthologies of short stories and poetry.
Born in Hebron on 12 Jan. 1939; received a Diploma in Education from the Amman Teacher Training College, Jordan, in 1959; worked as a teacher in Hebron for a short time, then continued his studies at Damascus University, Syria, graduating with an LLB in 1966; was imprisoned by Israeli authorities during 1968-72; then practiced law from 1972-74; returned to the field of education afterwards; also acted as Secretary of the Benevolent Medical Center, Hebron, and as Director of the Hebron University Graduates’ Union (UGU) from 1974-85; also served as Secretary of the Union of Charitable Societies during 1975-76, and as treasurer of the Family Planning Society from 1982; in 1985, became Director of the Research Center of the UGU in Hebron (until 1988); since 1988, Director of the UGU Model School; Board of Trustees member of the Arab Thought Forum since 1993.
Born in Hebron on 12 Dec. 1930; received his early education in Hebron; then went to Cairo to study Chemical Engineering, graduating with a BSc in 1956; also earned a Diploma in Industrial Management from the Netherlands in 1960; was elected deputy mayor of Hebron in 1976; serves as Chairman of the Arab Cement Company, Hebron, since 1978; became mayor of Hebron in 1980 (replacing the deported mayor Fahd Qawasmeh), serving until 1983, when the Israeli authorities deposed the elected Municipal Council; was deported to Jordan by Israel the same year; pro-Fateh; was a member of the Palestinian delegation to the 1991 Madrid conference but resigned in 1992; was appointed mayor of Hebron by the PA in April 1994; was involved in the negotiations that led to the Jan. 1997 Hebron Agreement; is as businessman involved in various industries (incl. stone cutting and canning); serves as Director of the Agricultural Industries Co., Hebron.
Born in Hebron in 1934; holds an MA in Political Science from Cairo University and a PhD from Moscow University; worked as Director of the Office of the Qatari Education Ministry from 1956-70; was elected to the Fateh Central Committee in May 1980; served as the first PLO representative to Saudi Arabia; was elected PLC member (Fateh) for the Hebron district in the Jan. 1996 elections; was appointed PA Minister of Labor from 1998-2002; then was appointed Minister of Agriculture in June 2002 and reappointed to the post in the cabinet of PM Mahmoud Abbas on 30 April 2003; was elected PLC Speaker in Nov. 2003 to replace Ahmad Qrei’a (who became PM); remained in the post until March 2004, when Rawhi Fattouh was elected new speaker; ran unsuccessfully in the 2006 PLC elections (Fateh, Hebron district); has authored several books on Palestinian history, incl. Israel: A Settlement Project, Islamic Jerusalem, Sultan Abdel-Hamid the Second and Palestine , and Islam and Palestine .
Born in Qalqilya on 25 Nov. 1938; studied Medicine at Ein Shams University, Egypt, graduating in 1964; worked as a doctor in Kuwait for two years; then served at the American Board of Internal Medicine from 1967-72; became chief of internal medicine and cardiology at Maqassed Hospital, Jerusalem, in 1972; also ran a private clinic in Ramallah; became Chief of Internal Medicine at Maqassed Hospital from 1986; served as Chairman of the Health Services Council and as Chairman of the Board of Trustees at Birzeit University from 1988; served as Chairman of the Scientific Committee of the Medical Association from 1991; died on 28 Feb. 2002.
Born in Palestine; received a BA (1974) and MA (1976) in Sociology from the University of Tennessee in Knoxville and later earned her PhD (1986) from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; has taught at many universities, incl. Birzeit University, the University of California in Los Angeles, Brigham Young University, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Tantur Ecumenical Institute for Theological Studies, the University of Utah, and Harvard University; has been a fellow at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies and the Salzburg Seminar; is a founding member of the Association for Personalist Psychology and Psychotherapy in Zurich; currently Associate Professor of Sociology at Al-Quds University in Jerusalem; has published numerous articles published in books and periodicals and is co-author (with her husband Nafez Nazzal of the Historical Dictionary of Palestine (Scarecrow Press, 1997).
Born in Amman in 1963 to a family originally from Qalqilya;completed his secondary school education in Kuwait; enrolled at Karachi University, Pakistan, graduating with an MA in Chemistry; joined the Islamic Movement at an early age and was active among the expatriate students in Pakistan; was elected as Sec.-Gen. of the Muslim Students’ Union in Pakistan; began working for Hamas since 1989; became member of the Hamas politburo and was appointed as its representative in Jordan in 1992; is opposed to the Oslo process; said in Amman in 1993 that Hamas would support a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza as a first step toward liberating all of Palestine; went into hiding when Jordan launched its unprecedented crackdown on Hamas in 1999; relocated in Damascus; in recent years, was involved in recent inter-Palestinian dialogue on a ceasefire as well as on Palestinian unity talks; is currently based in Beirut.
Born in Qalqilya in 1958; received a BA in Arts from Birzeit University in 1981; worked as an Arabic Teacher at the Society College in Ramallah in 1984-85; was repeatedly arrested by the Israeli army during 1988-89 for resistance activities and placed under administrative detention, followed by house arrest; became Senior Editor at the Office for Journalism Services in Jerusalem from 1985-92; also wrote poetry and literary studies; was elected head of the Palestinian Writers Union from 1987-95; worked, at the same time, as Cultural Editor for Al-Awda magazine and as Chief Editor for the Abeer magazine, both in Jerusalem; was elected head of the General Panel of the Palestinian Higher Education Board from 1992-94; continued his studies and earned an MA in Arts and Criticismfrom Al-Yarmouk University, Jordan, in 1993; was Deputy Minister at the PA Ministry of Information from 1994-98; since 1998, serves as head of the Ramallah-based Palestinian House of Poetry; is a member of the Palestinian Journalist Union, the Palestinian Folklore Society, and the Palestinian Writers Union; serves as Board of Trustees member of the Palestinian National Theater in Jerusalem, Al-Kasaba Theater, Al-Siraj Theater, and Al-Sumud Group for Arts; is general supervisor and editor-in-charge of Al-Shuara’a cultural magazine; was awarded a prize from Birzeit University in 1983 as well as the First Prize for Palestinian Poetry in 1990; was elected as Sec.-Gen. of the Palestinian Writers’ Union in 2005; continued his studies and earned a PhD in Arts and Literature in 2005 from the Arab League, Institute of Arab Research and Studies, Cairo; has published several works, incl. Seasons of Life and Death (1987), The Coming Fire Wind (1995), Black Milk (1999), and The Spear is the Same (2004).
Born in Palestine; received a BA (1967) and MA (1969) in Political Science from the State University of New York at Albany, and later a PhD (1974) in History from Georgetown University in Washington DC; taught at many universities incl. York College of Pennsylvania, University of California in Los Angeles, the University of South California, Brigham Young University, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Tantur Ecumenical Institute for Theological Studies, the University of Utah, and Harvard University; has been a fellow at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, the Institute for East-West Security Studies, the International Security Studies Program of the Woodrow Wilson Center and the Salzburg Seminar; has published widely in books and periodicals; is the author of The Palestinian Exodus from the Galilee (Institute for Palestine Studies, 1978); co-author (with his wife Laila Nazzal) of the Historical Dictionary of Palestine (Scarecrow Press, 1997).
Born in Haifa in 1912; joined the Palestinian Communist Party (PCP) at an early age and was put in charge of its weekly publication Al-Ittihad; translated and published books in Jaffa as early as 1935; was imprisoned by the British authorities from 1940-42 for his political activism; upon release, left the PCP and was recruited to a small Trotskyist movement by Yigael Gluckstein (later better known as Tony Cliff); returned to the PCP after the movement collapsed in the late 1940s; played a leading role in PCP’s monthly literary journal, Al-Jaddid in the early 1950s; was placed under house arrest by Israel after the War of 1967; joined the Trotskyist movement again after 1968 when it re-emerged under the name Matzpen in Israel; moved to London in 1970; was the author of numerous articles and pamphlets; also translated some of the classics of Marxism into Arabic; died in 1974.
Born in Nablus in 1905; graduated from An-Najah National College in Nablus; was imprisoned for three months by the British authorities in 1929 for his resistance against occupation and Jewish immigration; was the co-founder of an Islamic society in Palestine; promoted the idea of founding an Arab-Palestinian progressive party in 1947; author of many publications, incl. Tarikh Jabal Nablus wa-l-Balqa’ (The History of Nablus) in four volumes (Nablus, 1974); died in 1985.
Born in 1934; from Qalqilya; was educated in Qalqilya, graduating from high school in 1953; moved to Ya’cuba, Iraq, where he attended a teacher training program; taught in Algeria and received training in the Algerian army in 1964; early Fateh leader (recruited by Khalil Al-Wazir); joined Fateh field command in Damascus in 1965; assumed control of Fateh for a short while when PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat was arrested in 1966, until he was arrested himself; moved to Jordan after the June 1967 War and became a leader of the Palestinian revolution forces in Ajlun; ran a training camp for recruits at Al-Hama, Syria, in 1968; became member of the Fateh Central Committee with overall responsibility for Syria and Lebanon; member of the general leadership of Al-Assifa Fateh resistance forces; tried in vain to convince the resistance movement to pull back from Amman before the 1970 Black September; was killed at Ajlun by Jordanian forces in an offensive against the fedayeen in July 1971.
Born in Jerusalem in 1914; studied at the Palestine Law Institute in Jerusalem, graduating in 1948; worked in journalism, education, and in Arab and Jordanian politics; from 1940 worked for the Arab Broadcasting Center in Jerusalem; also worked as translator (English and Arabic); was among the founders of a branch of the Ba’ath Arab Party in Ramallah in 1952 and co-founder (together with Abdullah Rimawi) of its paper Al-Ba’ath; member of the Jordanian Parliament in the early 1950s; published, together with Abdullah Rimawi, a book containing their speeches and essays, entitled Fi Sabeel Al-Ba’ath; moved to Syria in 1957; died in Damascus from a heart attack on 17 Sept. 1958.
Born in Jabalia Refugee Camp in 1956; was prohibited from traveling by Israel since 1973, the year in which he joined the Muslim Brotherhood; graduated from Al-Faluja Secondary School in 1975; received a Diploma in Land Survey in 1977; became a Board member of the Islamic Society in Gaza in 1979; was arrested by Israel in 1987 (until 1990), and again in 1991 (until 1994) for political activities; served as head of the Hamas military wing; was a member of the National Salvation Party in Gaza from 1996 and member of its politburo from 1998-2001; was arrested by PA security forces in Dec. 1996; now one of the Hamas leaders in the Gaza Strip; serves as Hamas representative to the Higher Islamic and Nationalist Forces Follow Up Committee since the assassination of Abdul Aziz Al-Rantisi; has been involved in the inter-Palestinian factional dialogue in Cairo and elsewhere during 2004-05.; is head of Al-Ri’aya Patients’ Charitable Society in Gaza since 2002; also serves as Board member of ‘Mabarrat Al-Rahmah’ (Mercy Center) Charitable Society in Gaza since 2004.
Born in Qalqilya in 1944; completed his basic and secondary schooling in Qalqilya; attended a Teacher College and worked as a teacher; became active in the ANM in 1961; moved to the military branch of the movements “Shabab Ath-Tha’r” and “Abtal Al-’Awda” in 1965; founded an armed group in the Qalqilya area in 1966; left his teaching position in 1967 to devote his time to the PFLP; helped establishing its military branch in Jordan in 1968; was among the founders of the DFLP after its split from PFLP in 1969; PNC member since 1971; became military commander of the DFLP in 1972 and served as member of its politburo (until 1988); served as member of the DFLP delegation to the Soviet Union in Nov. 1974; was a member of the PLO Higher Military Council since its establishment in 1974; was one of the leaders of the Palestinian revolution in Lebanon in 1986, 1987, 1988; mediated between the Fateh factions in Lebanon in the mid-1980s; left Lebanon to Tunisia following the first Intifada in 1988; became a member in the Higher Committee for Palestinian-Israeli Negotiations and the 1991 Madrid Peace Conference; helped establish Fida in 1991 and became a politburo member; returned to the West Bank on 3 March 1996 and became a member of the PLO Higher Committee for Palestinian National Security; served as Pres. Yasser Arafat’s political advisor for internal affairs; occasionally contributed as columnist to Al-Ayyam newspaper; was opposed to militarizing the second Intifada; supported the Geneva Initiative; is a member of the Palestinian Higher Security Council; worked as independent author and political analyst from Ramallah; has published a number of articles, studies and books, incl. The Story of the Oslo Agreement (1995), The Palestinian-Israeli Negotiations: Madrid-Washington (1996), In Search of Statehood (Arabic, 2000), Intifada: The Shattering of the Peace Process (2002), and Electing Mr. President (2005); died on 21 July 2006 in Amman.
Born in Jaffa in 1944; fled with his family to Gaza during the 1948 Nakba; grew up in Deir Al-Balah; earned a PhD in Philosophy and Psychology; worked as a writer, journalist and author of psychotherapy advices; left Gaza and lived abroad for 30 years; founded a small party called the Movement for Justice and Freedom aimed at the building of a civilized and moral society free of corruption and violence; nominated himself in Nov. 2004 as an independent candidate for the presidential elections following the death of Pres. Yasser Arafat, but dropped out of the race a month later due to a lack of funding; announced the intention to create the ‘Party of Love’ to fight the “culture of death and hatred in Palestinian society” in June 2005, for which he received several death threats.
Born in Jerusalem in 1913; studied at Ar-Rawda College and the Arab College in Jerusalem; graduated from Queens College in Cambridge, UK, with an MA in Law in 1934; returned and became a district judge in Jerusalem; joined the pro-Husseini majlesiyoun faction; worked as land officer of Jerusalem in 1936; was appointed to the reconstituted Arab Higher Committee in 1946; lost a leg in the 1948 War; served as Secretary of the Cabinet of the All-Palestine Government, established in 1948 in Gaza; was co-opted by Jordan and elected Palestinian representative for Jerusalem in the Jordanian parliament (Chamber of Deputies) in 1950; served as Chief Arab delegate to the Israeli-Jordanian Mixed Armistice Commission in 1951; from Sept. 1952, was appointed to the Jordanian Cabinet, serving intermittently as Minister of Development and Reconstruction (1952-54), DM (1952-55), and Minister of Education; was appointed to the Senate in March 1953 (resigned in 1954 to return to parliament); founding member of the Arab Constitutional Party, established 1956 under Tawfiq Abu Al-Huda; served as Governor of Jerusalem from 1962-65; was re-appointed to the Senate by King Hussein in 1963; was appointed Jordan’s Ambassador to Britain, serving from 1965-67; after the War of 1967, was a leading West Bank supporter of Jordan; acted as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Jerusalem Electric Company from early 1980; died in Jerusalem in Nov. 1986.
Born in Jerusalem in May 1922; received his secondary education from Victoria College in Alexandria, Egypt, during the years 1936-40; won several national and international championships in tennis, incl. in Alexandria in 1938, Jerusalem in 1942, and in Beirut 1943; studied at the AUB from 1940-43, graduating with a BA in Political Science; attended the Law School in Jerusalem from 1943-48, earning a Law Degree; also earned an MPA Degree from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA, in 1952, as well as an MA (1953) and PhD (1954) from the Politics Dept. at Princeton University; served as FM of Jordan from 1962-66; then became Minister of the Hashemite Royal Court and political adviser to King Hussein as well as Minister of Reconstruction and Development (1967-68); served as Ambassador to Egypt from 1969-71, to Turkey from 1971-72, and to Italy, Switzerland and Austria from 1972-74; was Permanent Representative of Jordan to the UN from 1976-82 (incl. a term of service at the UNSC representing the Arab and Asian Blocs); member of the Jordan Senate from 1982-89; has written several academic books, incl. Ideas of Arab Nationalism (Cornell University Press, US), and Palestine and the United Nations (Quartet Publishers, 1980), as well as translated two books from Arabic into English: The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam (by Subhi Mahmasani) and The Independence Movements in Arab North Africa (by Allal-al-Fassi).
Born in Jerusalem in 1937; was educated at St. George’s School, Jerusalem; completed secondary school in Britain; enrolled at Sheffield University, UK, and obtained a degree in Civil Engineering; became an officer in the Jordanian Arab Army; served as head of the Engineering Dept. in the West Bank from 1960-65; established his won Engineering and Contracting Co. Ltd. in 1965; was part of a three-member professional team appointed by the Muslim authorities that investigated the fire of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem on 21 Aug. 1969; developed and built an Arab housing project in Jerusalem (known as the Nusseibeh buildings or neighborhood), providing housing for over 2,000 residents; is a member of the Supreme Muslim Council in Jerusalem since 1986; member of the Higher Waqf Council in Jerusalem since 1986; was elected Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Muslim Council in 1993 and served as Acting Chairman in 1997; member of the Committee for the Restoration and Renovation of Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem; former Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the College of Science and Technology, Jerusalem; co-founder and former Chairman and Chancellor of Al-Quds University; Chairman and member of various charitable organizations in Jerusalem and the West Bank; owns the Addar Suites Hotel in Jerusalem.
Born in Jerusalem in 1926; joined Palestinian revolutionaries in the early 1940s; attended the Military Engineering College of the Syrian Army in 1948; participated in the Golan Height battles in the 1950s; eventually was given the rank of a major and was made commander of the Northern Sector of the Golan Front in 1959; moved to Jordan in 1964, where he joined Fateh; became Commander of the Detection Dept. in military training, and a leader of Fateh operations; in 1970, was appointed commander of the Police Force (Kifah Al-Musalleh); was appointed leader of the PLO after the Palestinian Forces left Jordan in 1970 (until 1979); was promoted to Major-General and appointed Military Advisor of Yasser Arafat in 1982; died on 18 Dec. 1999.
Born in Jerusalem on 2 Feb. 1949; son of Anwar Nusseibeh; spent his childhood in Jordanian-ruled Jerusalem; studied Politics, Philosophy and Economics at Christ Church, Oxford University, graduating with a BA in 1971; went to live with relatives in Abu Dhabi, where he worked for the Abu Dhabi Oil Company and as columnist for Abu Dhabi News; won a scholarship to study for his doctorate in 1974 and earned a PhD in Islamic Philosophy from Harvard University in 1978; returned to the West Bank and became Professor of Philosophy at Birzeit University, 1978-90; also taught classes in Islamic Philosophy at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem; in the early 1980s, helped organize the Teachers Union at Birzeit and served three terms as its Pres.; was a co-founder of the Federation of Employees in the Education Sector for the West Bank; head of the Holy Land Press Services; founder and head of the Palestinian Consultancy Group, undertaking research projects on the management of Palestinian infrastructure; first prominent Palestinian to hold talks with a senior Likud politician, Moshe Amirav, in Sept. 1987, together with Faisal Al-Husseini and Salah Zuheikah; in 1987, became a prominent - though controversial - advocate for Palestinian enfranchisement within a democratic Israeli-Palestinian state; helped in setting up technical committees throughout the West Bank during the first Intifada, aimed at actively restoring the Palestinian infrastructure and building the foundation for a state; was indicted by Israel for keeping the Intifada alive and had his press service closed down in June 1989; his English language newsletter, Monday Report, was also banned later that year; served as Director of Maqdes – Jerusalem Center for Strategic Studies from 1990; was arrested in Jan. 1991, accused of spying for Iraq, and imprisoned for three months (was adopted as a Prisoner of Conscience by Amnesty International); was a member of the Steering Committee behind the Palestinian(-Jordanian) delegation to the Oct. 1991 Madrid Peace Conference (being as Jerusalem resident ineligible to become an official delegate); wrote dozens of articles and co-authored No Trumpets, No Drums (1991) with Mark Heller, calling for a two-state solution; was appointed Pres. of Al-Quds University in Feb. 1995, replacing the deceased Dr. Hatem Al-Husseini, and serves in the post since; considered a Fateh moderate in the West Bank; in Oct. 2001, was appointed by Pres. Yasser Arafat to be the PLO representative in Jerusalem after the death of Faisal Al-Husseini in May that year; was briefly arrested on 17 Dec. 2001 for planning a reception for foreign diplomats at a hotel in Jerusalem to celebrate the Eid Al-Fitr at the end of Ramadan on the grounds that the reception threatened Israel’s sovereignty over Jerusalem; was also appointed Secretary of the Jerusalem Committee (as part of the PLO Exec. Committee) in June 2002, and as PLO official for Jerusalem Affairs at non-cabinet ministerial level in Oct. 2002 (though he was relieved of that portfolio by Arafat on 19 Dec. 2002); had his university offices closed several times by the Israelis since 2002 on the grounds that they represented PA activity in Jerusalem; has criticized the militarization of the second Intifada; co-launched with former Israeli Shin Bet chief Ami Ayalon “The People’s Voice”, a non-partisan civil initiative to mobilize grassroots support for a two-state solution, in June 2003.
Born in Ras Al-Matn, Lebanon, in 1896; was educated at the Friends English School (also known as Mr. Oliver’s school) in Ras al-Matn, then at the Protestant School in Brummana and, after it closed following the outbreak of WWI, at the American School in Souk Al-Gharb, from where he graduated in 1916; left Lebanon to Damascus after the WWI and established - with Abdullah Al-Najjar - Al-Qalam magazine; also joined the translation office headed by the historian Sate’ Al-Hussary; moved to Jerusalem in 1920; translated The New World of Islam by Lothrop Stoddard into Arabic (published in Cairo, 1925, and Beirut, 1973); joined the Jerusalem Law School, graduating in 1925; was appointed by HajAmin Al-Husseini as Secretary for the Higher Islamic Council, then as Assistant Inspector of Shari’a Courts from 1922-32; served as Secretary of the Constitution Committee at the General Islamic Conference in 1931; resigned from his work at the Higher Islamic Council to start publishing Al-Arab weekly magazine and publishing house in 1932/33; co-founder of the Al-Istiqlal party in 1932; was arrested by British Mandate authorities following the 1936 Revolt and deported first to Jericho, then to Sarafand near Acre; opened a law firm in Jerusalem and practiced law from 1936-39; worked as Director of the Arabic section at the Palestine Radio from 1940-45; returned to his law firm from 1945-47; was appointed by King Abdullah I as Assistant Director of the Jordanian Royal Court in 1950; served as Director of Jordanian Broadcasting in Ramallah from 1950-1951, then as Director of the Printing and Publications Dept. in 1951; returned to Ras al-Matn, devoting his time to free lance-writing from 1959-82; was elected by consensus a supporter-member of the Iraqi Academic Institute in 1979; authored dozens of articles and essays as well as several books, incl. Abu Ja’far Al-Mansour and the Arabism of Lebanon (Arabic, Beirut, 1962); Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion: Text, Symbols, Talmud Origins (Arabic, Beirut, 1967; Amman, 1996); Men from Palestine (Arabic, Beirut, 1981); Sixty Years with the Arab Nationalist Caravan (Biography) (Arabic, Beirut, 1993); In addition to dozens of articles and essays published in Arabic periodicals and newspapers in more than a dozen of Arab and Islamic countries; remembered most as an orator, historian, translator; died in 1982.